Gakondo k’iwacu ntikiri ubukonde bw’iwacu n’abacu!

Rwanda nziza, gihugu cy'imisozi igihumbi
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Ikibazo cyashegeshe igihugu cyacu n’abagituye ni ukutamenya neza iwabo n’ababo. Uko umuco-nyarwanda wagiye usobekerana n’imico mvamahanga, abenegihugu bagiye bamira bunguri iby’imahanga bakirengagiza nkana iby’iwabo cyangwa kuko batabizi.  Kumenya iwabo n’ababo ndetse no kumenyana, ngo basangire basabane biba ibango ryo gutatira igihango cya gakondo. Biteye agahinda kamwe k’umukubabibero !

Muri iyi nyandiko twise  »Gakondo k’iwacu » tuzajya twibanda cyane ku ndangagaciro z’inkomoko ya buri bwoko zigenda zikendera zigateshwa agaciro cyangwa zigasimbuzwa nkana iz’ahandi uboshye ako umwambaro ushaje cyangwa utakigezweho usimbuza undi uko wishakiye. Muri iki gice cyambere turibanda cyane cyane ku nkomoka y’ahantu dutuye n’uko hahoze ari ibihugu byigenga. Ubwanditsi bw’urubuga  »Umunyamakuru.com » bubahaye ikaze ngo mutange ibitekerezo by’uko twasigasira indagagaciro z’umuco wacu n’uko twakwagura amarembo tukakira n’iby’ahandi ariko byiza, atari ibibonetse byose.

Iranga-muntu yacu nyayo ihera ku isoko, hariya kure cyane Ibuvamuntu. Kubimenya neza no kubizirikana ni ko kumenya uwo uri we, iyo uva n’iyo ujya n’abo ubana na bo n’ibyo ubamo cyangwa ukora; kuko ibyo bose bifite isoko yabyo, hari inyuma y’indorerwamo y’Inyabutatu yateshejwe ubusugi itaratera kabiri ikaza kwokama abakina umukino wa politiki ya  »vamo nanjye njyemo » n’abo inda yarenze bokamwe na  »mpemuke ndamuke ». Soma usomeshe kandi usensengure, utibagiwe no gusangiza abandi ibyo usanga bifite akamaro mu kubaka igihugu kizima no kugiteganyiriza amizero y’ejo hazaza.

Basomyi namwe nshuti z’umunyamakuru.com ndabaramukije, muhorane Imana y’i Rwanda. Muri kumwe na Nsabimana Evariste ; Gakondo k’iwacu ni mu Rukiga, ni hariya mu majyaruguru hahana imbibi na Ndorwa ugana i Bugande, na ho imbere Rukiga ikaba ikikijwe n’ u Buberuka hariya kuri Base, Bumbogo hakurya ya Bahimba, Buriza hakurya ya Muyanza, Buganza hakurya ya Mwange, Buyaga hakurya ya Mwange. Ndumva mumenye aho Rukiga iherereye kugira ngo abakiri bato bayitandukanye n’Inkinga.

Iyo twikije (kwitsa) ijambo Gakondo, duhita dutekereza  »Gukonda », igikoresho kikaba inkonzo kuko umuntu yumva ko nyirumurimo ari mu ishyamba ry’inzitane. Nyirugukonda akaba umukonde naho aho yakonze hakaba Gakondo, bivuga ko aho hantu ari ahe akazaharaga abamukomokaho uko iminsi igenda iha indi. Abakonde rero ni abahinzi akaba ari na yo mpamvu bimitse isuka yaje kwimura inkonzo, ubucuzi bumaze kuvumburwa n’abahinzi.

Buri muntu agira gakondo ke, kuko ari umuntu akagakomora ku bukonde bw’abo akomokaho ari bo bakurambere be. Reka tube duhujwe n’uru rurimi, ndaba ndetse kuruvuga izina kuko muri icyo gihe izina ryarwo rishobora kuba atari iryo rufite ubu.

Gakondo rero yagiye yaguka ndetse n’abakonde bagenda biyongera. Uko bagenda bororoka baje guhuza izina n’uko baritwa. Rigashobora gukomoka ku mukurambere cyangwa ku kindi bumva ko kibahuje.
Uko bagenda bagura « Ubwatsi » bwabo (bongera amasambu yabo) baza kubugira igihugu, barema imihango ibaha umwami ubavukamo, mu bwoko bwabo.

Muri iyo ntumbero rero yo gushaka kumenya abo turi bo, iyo tuva n’iyo tujya, mbanje gushingira ku gitabo cya Padiri Muzungu Bernardin yise  »Histoire du Rwanda pré-colonial », ugenekereje mu kinyarwanda bishatse kuvunga ngo » Amateka y’u Rwanda mbere y’umwaduko w’abazungu ». Muri icyo gitabo cyasohotse mu mwaka wi 2003 (édition L’Harmattan), umwanditsi agaragaza imibanire yarangaga ibihugu by’icyo gihe n’ibisanira abantu bafitanye ashingiye cyane cyane ku moko gakondo, akivugwa na n’ubu. Ayo moko-gakondo rero avuga ni aya akurikira: abenengwe, abasinga, ababanda, abongera (bamwe bita cyangwa bitiranya n’abungura ariko atari byo), abazigaba, abagesera, abagara.

Uretse rero Padiri Muzungu Bernardin hari n’abandi bashakashatsi bagiye bagaruka kuri icyo kibazo cy’amoko-gakondo ariko ku buryo bwabo, batanyuze inzira y’imitekerereze nk’iya Padiri Muzungu. Muri abo twavuga nka Padiri Kagame Alexis mu gitabo cye yise  »Les organisations socio-familiales de l’ancien Rwanda », ucishirije mu kinyarwanda bishatse kuvuga ngo  »Imiterere y’imiryango mu Rwanda rwo hambere ». Muri iki gitabo cya Padiri Kagame Alexis (aha tukaba twakwibutsa ko uyu yanabaye umwiru i Bwami) cyasohokeye i Buruseli mu Bubiligi mu w’1954 dusangamo amoko 15 ari yo aya: abega, abasindi, abakono, abaha, abagesera, abazigaba, abasinga, abashambo, abahondogo, abacyaba, ababanda, abenengwe, abongera, abungura, abasita.

Aya moko uko ari 15, Padiri Kagame Alexis ayagabanyamo ibyiciro cyangwa se icyo twakwita amatsinda-nkomoko (origines) 2 y’ingenzi. Hari abo yita  »Ibimanuka » n’abandi yita  »Abasangwabutaka ». Kuri we itsinda-nkomoko yita  »Ibimanuka » (Les descendus du ciel) rigizwe n’ubwoko bune gusa aribwo  »abashambo, abahondogo, abungura, abasita  »; na ho iryo yita  »abasangwabutaka » (Les terriens ou autochtones) rikaba rigizwe n’ubwoko bw’ abega, abasindi, abakono, abaha, abagesera, abazigaba, abasinga, abacyaba, ababanda, abenengwe n’abongera. Muri iyi nyandiko ayo moko 4 y’Ibimanuka, ubu turaba tuyaretse tuzayagarukeho nyuma mu yindi nyandiko yihariye.

Uretse rero aba banditsi babiri b’abanyarwanda, ni ukuvuga Padri Muzungu Bernardin na Padri Kagame Alexis, hari n’undi mwanditsi w’umunyamahanga witwa D’Hertefelt Marcel wageregeje kwandika kuri icyo kibazo cy’amoko-gakondo y’abanyarwanda. Mu gitabo cye yise  »Les clans du Rwanda ancien: éléments d’ethnosociologie et d’ethnohistoire, bishatse kuvuga ugenekerereje mu kinyarwanda ngo: Amoko mu Rwanda rwo hambere: imibereho y’abantu n’amateka yabo  » we, aragenda akagera ku moko cumi n’umunani ari yo aya : ababanda, abacyaba, abega, abenengwe, abagesera, abaha, abakono, abanyakarama, abanyiginya, abongera (bamwe bitiranya cg bita abungura), abashambo, abashingo (bamwe bita rimwe na rimwe abashingwe?), abasindi, abasinga, abasita, abatsobe, abungura, abazigaba.

Reka noneho rero turebe amoko y’abasangwabutaka, ari na bo bakonde aba banditsi uko ari batatu bahurizaho. Amoko-gakondo aba banditsi bose bahurizaho ni arindwi, ariyo aya : abenengwe, abasinga, ababanda, abongera, abazigaba, abagesera, abacyaba.

Ndabona rero amoko arindwi ariko abagara Muzungu yita ubwoko nkaba numva ari inyito bakomora kuri gakondo kabo ari bwo Bugara, bakaba rero ari abacyaba.

Mbaye mpagarariye kuri aya moko arindwi kugira ngo nsuzume niba aza kugusha ku bihugu gakondo byayo.

Ibihugu gakondo n’ingoma z’ubwami bwabyo

Icyibanze kigomba kumenyekana ni uko buri gihugu cyayoborwaga n’umwami w’umukonde (twakwita  »KAVUKIRE »), akaba akomoka mu be bahuje ubwoko, bahuriye ku uukurambere nyir’izina ry’ubwoko bwabo, bakaba rero bahuje umuterekero. Turebere hamwe ibyo bihugu, abami babyo n’ingoma z’ubwami, ndetse n’icyerekezo birimo ubu kuko bitigeze bitirimuka. Ibyo bihugu rero ni ibi:

Igihugu cya Bungwe

Bungwe ni igihugu cy’abenengwe. Iyo ugerageje kwumva iryo zina ry’abenengwe ari bo baturage gakondo b’i Bungwe, ushobora kwumva ko ari abana b’ingwe, Bungwe ikaba igihugu cy’iwabo w’ingwe. N’agatsinda abenengwe bahuje ubwoko n’ingwe.

Bungwe ikikanyije (gukikanya=kuzenguruka?) uruzi (cyangwa se umugezi) rw’Akanyaru. Hakurya ikaba igizwe n’intara ya Ngozi n’iya Kayanza (i Burundi), naho hakuno hakaba Busanza bw’amajyepfo, Bufundu, Nyaruguru, Buyenzi, Bashumba, Nyakare. Umwami wa mbere (w’i Bungwe) washoboye kumenywa yitwa Rwamba, abamukomokaho bakaba Abenerwamba, ni cyo bita Inzu mu Kinyarwanda; iyo nzu ikabyara ibikomangoma. Abenerwamba bari batuye mu misozi iri munsi ya Nyakizu muri Bashumba. Umwami w’i Bungwe wabaye ikirangirire cyane ni Samukende umugabo wa Nyagakecuru mu Bisi bya Huye akaba yari atuye mu mpinga ya Nyakibanda ari wo murwa mukuru wa Bungwe.

Igihugu cy’Abenengwe cyabayeho mu mahoro cyiza gutsindwa umwami wacyo ari Rubuga rwa Samukende. Aha humvikane neza ko umwami wa nyuma w’icyo gihugu ari Rubuga rwa Samukende. Ingoma y’ubwami y’abenengwe yitwaga  »Nyamibande ». Ubwo tuvuye rero i Bungwe mu Majyepfo, reka twerekeze mu mu Majyaruguru mu gihugu cy’u Bugoyi bw’abasinga.

Igihugu cy’u Bugoyi

Iyo tuvuze Igihugu cy’u Bugoyi bw’Abasinga, duhita dutekereza Abarenge bakomoka kuri Rurenge w’Umusinga. Abarenge ni inzu ibyara Ibikomangoma ari byo bivamo Abami.

Abasinga bafitanye isano na Sakabaka, ni yo Nyamaswa basangiye Ubwoko. Umwami wanyuma w’ubugoyi uzwi ni Jeni ya Rurenge, agatura muri Rwerere iri mu Bugoyi. Ingoma y’Ubwami y’Abasinga ni Mpatsibihugu.
U Bugoyi bwegereye i Kivu ahagana iyo rirengera (iburengerazuba bw’u Rwanda rw’ubu). Umurwa mukuru w’u Bugoyi ni Rwerere, umwami wa nyuma w’u Bugoyi uzwi akaba ari Jeni ya Ruenge.

Igihugu cy’u Bugoyi cyari cyibumbye ibihugu byinshi (confédération), ari byo : Bunyambiriri, Nyantango, Budaha, Cyingogo, Bushiru, Buhoma, Rwankeri, Bugoyi, Kanage, Bwishaza, Rusenyi.

Icyo twavuga dutsindagira hano, ni uko u Bugoyi cyari igihugu cyibumbye ibihugu byinshi (confédération) nk’uko bigaragara ariko buri gihugu muri ibyo bihugu bibumbye Bugoyi kikaba gifite abami bacyo bwite n’amategeko yacyo; ubundi abo bami bose bakaba bayoboka Umwami mukuru wari afite Inteko ye (ikicaro cye) muri Rwerere mu Bugoyi. Bugoyi rero mu by’ukuri yari umurwa mukuru w’urwo rusobe rw’ibihugu byose byigenga bifite n’abami babyo bwite.

Ingoma y’ubwami y’abasinga b’abarenge yari Mpatsibihugu. Iyo nyito irumvikana kuko igihugu cy’u Bugoyi cyari kigizwe n’ibihugu byinshi kandi bifite abami babyo. Reka tuve mu Bugoyi twigabe mu Bushiru nibucya dutahe mu Cyingogo giteganye na Nduga. Buzacya twambuka Nyabarongo dutaha i Nduga.

Igihugu cya Nduga

Nduga y’abasinga b’abarenge ntizaramba kuko izigarurirwa n’ababanda baje kubandagaza umwami wayo. Nzabagezaho ayo Mahindura umunsi twageze mu Nduga y’ababanda.

Nduga rero ni igihugu gifite umwihariko kuko cyabaye isibaniro ry’amoko abiri, ariyo, abasinga n’ababanda. Cyategetswe mbere n’abasinga baje gusimburwa nyuma n’ababanda. Ni cyo gihugu cyonyine mu bihugu-gakondo cyageze aho, ariko urebye nta ntambara imena amaraso yahabaye. Umwami wa Nduga y’abasinga ni Kimezamiryango cya Rurenge, aha ariko tukumva ko n’ubwo ari igihugu cy’abasinga b’abarenge ntabwo iri muri Rukomatanyo y’u Bugoyi, ahubwo na yo ikomatanyije ibyayo bihugu.

Ingoma y’ubwami y’abasinga bo mu Nduga sinashoboye kuyimenya. Uwandusha gucishiriza akamenya niba yarabayeho cyangwa se hari izindi nzira banyuragamo yanyunganira. Nduga uyisanga Rwagati mu Bihugu ikaba ikikijwe na Nyabarongo na Mukungwa. Ibumbye ibihugu byinshi ari byo : Busanza bw’amajyaruguru, Kabagari, Marangara, Nduga, Mayaga, Rukoma, Ndiza. Ariko Nduga ntiyagarukiraga aho. Mu majyaruguru yarakugenderaga ikagera : Bwishya, Jomba, Gisigari, Bwito, Gishari, Byahi, Kamuronsi ( Kongo). Aha turi muri Nduga y’Abasinga, kuko izahinduka iy’ababanda nk’uko tuzabibona nyuma. Tuvuye mu Nduga rwagati twambutse Nyabarongo, turangamiye iburengarazuba kugira ngo tuzatahe mu Kinyaga ; birumvikana ko Nyungwe tuzayihiha (tuzayambukiranya). Kinyaga rero na cyo ni igihugu cy’abasinga.

Igihugu cya Kinyaga

Ibyo nashoboye kumenya ku Gihugu cya Kinyaga birasa n’aho bituzuye. Gusa na cyo ni igihugu cy’abasinga b’abarenge.

Umwami wa Kinyaga ? Ingoma y’ubwami ? Aha na ho uwaba abisobanukiwe yanyunganira.
Kinyaga iherereye iburengerazuba, inyuma y’ishyamba rya Nyungwe, ikambukiranya i Kivu ikagera i Bunyabungo, ikaza guhana imbibi n’igihugu cy’u Bugoyi, mu Rusenyi. Kinyaga igizwe n’ibi bihugu : Cyesha, Mpala, Biru, Busozo, Bukunzi. Bunyabungo (Kongo). Reka noneho ducume urugendo rwacu, tuve iburengerazuba, twiyuhize Nyungwe tugana Amajyeppfo.Turakikira Bungwe kugira ngo tubone uko dutaha i Burwi.

Igihugu cya Burwi

Burwi na yo ni igihugu cy’abasinga b’abarenge, ariko irihariye ntabwo yibumbiye hamwe n’ibindi bihugu by’abasinga, ahubwo ibumbye ibyayo.

Umwami w’i Burwi ni Nyaruzi rwa Haramanga akaba yaratuye mu Mukindo wa Makwaza (Nyanza ya Butare ubu) ari wo murwa mukuru wa Burwi.

Ingoma y’ubwami bw’i Burwi ? Sinashoboye kuyimenya. Uwaba afite icyo abiziho yanyunganira.
Burwi iherereye mu Majyepfo ya Nduga ikaba ihana imbibi na Bungwe mu nkengero z’Akanyaru. Igizwe n’ibi bihugu : Mvenjuru, Buhanga na Ndara.

Twabanje kugenderera Abenengwe iwabo i Bungwe, haza gutaho abasinga b’abarenge usangana ibihugu byinshi ari byo, Bugoyi, Nduga, Kinyaga, Burwi. Ikigaragara ni uko Abasinga b’Abarenge bakogota igice kinini cyo mu Bihugu nk’uko byagiye bimenyekana. Bava mu Bugoyi bakazenguruka i Kivu bakagera mu Kinyaga bagaturira ishyamba rya Nyungwe bagakikira Bungwe kugira ngo batahe i Burwi maze bakazamuka bagana i Nduga. abasinga ni abakonde, ibihugu byabo ni Gakondo ntawe rero basimbuye. Umuntu yakumva ko Rurenge w’umusinga yaba yarakonze Igihugu, abamukomokaho na bo bagatera ikirenge mu cye. Twavuga ko abasinga ni abasangwabutaka, ko ari abakonde. Ariko uwo bakomokaho ariwe Rurenge twamwibazaho gato. Akomoka he ? Yari umwami na we ? W’ikihe gihugu ? Ibi ni ibibazo tutashoboye kubonera ibisubizo. Uwaba afite icyo abiziho cyangwa se abitekerezaho (hypothèses) yatwungura igitekerezo; kandi yaba afashije mu gutarurukanya ibisekuru no kubaka ipfundo-Gakondo ry’abacu n’iwacu.

Tukaba rero tumaze kuganira ku Bihugu Gakondo bitanu ari byo Bungwe, Bugoyi, Kinyaga, Nduga, Burwi.

Abumva kimwe muri ibyo bihugu ari Gakondo k’iwabo nababwira iki ? Munyunganire kugira ngo Gakondo ijye ku Mukondo, ni yo Nteko yayo.

Duhiniye aha tubararikira kuzaganira ubutaha ku bindi Bihugu Gakondo k’iwacu itaracibwa inkondo ari byo Nduga y’Ababanda, Buriza bw’Abongera, Mubari w’Abazigaba. Ni ah’ubutaha murakoze, murakagwira mugwize inka n’abana Gakondo muyigire ubukonde n’ubukombe ingoma Bihumbi.

Evariste Nsabimana

1 Comment on "Gakondo k’iwacu ntikiri ubukonde bw’iwacu n’abacu!"

  1. fantastic post.Never knew this, thanks for letting me know.

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