Umwami mushya w’u Rwanda Emmanuel Bushayija Yuhi VI yimiye i shyanga. Ese amategeko y’ubwami n’ubwiru mu Rwanda arabiteganya?

Emmanuel Bushayija, the nephew of the late exiled King Kigeli, named as king Yuhi VI by Kigeli’s chief courtier
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11/01/2017. Yanditswe na Tharcisse Semana

Mu itangazo rigenewe abanyamakuru ryo ku wa 9 Mutarama 2017,  »Inama nyarwanda y’ubwiru » bw’ubwami iramenyasha ko umwami Kigali V watabarukiye i shyanga ku ya 16 Ukwakira 2016, muri Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika, yazunguwe n’umwuzukuru w’umwami Yuhi V Musinga, Emmanuel Bushayija mwene Théoneste Bushayija, wavukiye mu Rwanda mu iw’1960 ariko ubu akaba aba mu gihugu cy’Ubwongereza. Muri iyi nyandiko turibaza niba ukwima kwe gukurikije amategeko agenga ubwiru n’ubwami mu Rwanda n’ingaruka bifite ku mateka n’ubwami mu Rwanda no ku miyoborere y’igihugu kigendera k’ubutegetsi bwa  »Repubulika ».  

Itangazo ry’inama nyarwanda y’ubwiru bw’ubwami rimenyasha ko umwami Kigeli wa gatanu (Kigali V) yasubiriwe n’umwami mushya witwa Emmanuel Bushayija mwene Théoneste Bushayija, umwuzukuru w’umwami Yuhi V Musinga. Rikomeza rivuga kandi ko yahawe izina ry’ubwami rya Yuhi wa gatandatu (Yuhi VI); ko yavukiye mu Rwanda itariki ya 20 Ukuboza 1960, akurira mu buhunzi mu gihugu cya Uganda ari naho yigiye amashure yisumbuye mbere yo gukora mw’ishirahamwe PEPSI Cola ry’i Kampala.

Mu itangazo ryayo, inama nyarwanda y’ubwiru ntisobanura uburyo n’ukuntu uyu muzukuru wa Yuhi V Musinga bimitse yageze  mu gihugu cya Uganda; ibinyura hejuru igakomeza ivuga ahubwo ko yakoze mu bukerarugendo mu gihugu cya Kenya, nyuma agasubira mu Rwanda mu kwezi kwa karindwi m’uw’1994, ubwo FPR-Inkotanyi yari imaze gufata ubutegetsi ku ruhembe rw’umuheto.

Mu itangazo ryayo, iyi nama nyarwanda y’ubwiru yikomereza ivuga ko Yuhi VI Bushayija usubiriye yasubiye Kigali wa gatanu (Kigali V) Ndahindurwa, yongeye kuva mu Rwanda mu 2000 ajya kuba mu gihugu cy’Ubwongereza, ari naho akiba gushyika magingo aya. Nisobanura narimwe impamvu uyu mwami mushya Yuhi VI Bushayija wimitswe ubu, aba imahanga (mu Bwongereza).

Ese ahari mu mpamvu z’ubuhunzi nk’uko uwo asubiriye yabaga muri Leta zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika cyangwa we ahari nk’umupagasi (umuntu wishakishiriza akazi n’imibereho myiza)? Kuba inama nyarwanda y’ubwiru ntacyo ivuga ku mpamvu za Yuhi VI Bushayija zo kuba hanze kuva mu buto bwe kugeza yimye ingoma aho ntibihishe byinshi bishobora gukurura amakimbirane n’umwuka mubi mu bakunzi b’ingoma ya cyami cangwa abifuza ko ubwami bwakomeza mu Rwanda? Ibi ni bimwe mu byo inama nyarwanda y’ubwiru yari ikwiye gusobanura vuba nangoga kugirango abantu basobanukirwe n’impamvu umwami yimiye ishanga nyuma y’uko uwo asubiriye atabarukiye ishyango kandi atabyifuzaga.

Nk’uko twateruye tubivuga, muri iyi nyandiko turibaza niba ukwima kwa Yuhi VI Bushayija gukurikije amategeko agenga ubwiru n’ubwami mu Rwanda n’ingaruka bifite ku mateka n’ubwami mu Rwanda no ku miyoborere y’igihugu ikivuga ko cyaciye ingoma ya cyami kikaba ubu kigendera k’ubutegetsi bwa  »Repubulika ».

Mvugana na Bwana Jackison Munyeragwe, umwe mubagize  »Ihuriro ry’Inyabutatu-RPRK » rihanira gusubizaho uburyo bw’imiyoborere y’Ubwami mu Rwanda ariko bugendera ku itegekonshinga yagize ati: «Twe mu ishyaka ryacu no mubyo duteganya ntitwemera narimwe abiru n’ubwiru, bamwimika batamwimika ibyo birabareba si umwami w’u Rwanda ». Yakomeje yungamo agira ati:  n’ubwo bavuga ko azakora akazi ke nk’umwami ugendera ku mategeko (umwami – roi – constitutionnel), aremeza ko ibyo umujyanana w’umwami Boniface Benzinge n’abo bafatanije bakoze bidakwiye kandi ko binyuranyije n’amahame y’inzego z’imiyoborere y’igihugu cy’u Rwanda. Aremeza adategwa ko n’ubwo igihugu kiyobowe nabi n’ubutegetsi bw’igitugu bwa FPR-Inkotanyi, ko ntawari ukwiye kwihandagaza ngo avuge ko agaruye ubwami gakondo mu Rwanda; ko ubwami we yemera ari ubushingiye ku itegeko-nshinga mu gihe abenegihugu bo ubwabo babitora batabihatiwe bakabihitamo ku mugaragaro.

Ubwiru butangirirahe bukarangirira he? Ese buracyafite agaciro ubu? 

Byari bisanzwe ko mu Rwanda kugira ngo umwami yimikwe abiru babigiragamo uruhare rukomeye kandi bigakorwa mu ibanga. Abazi neza iby’ubwami bavuga ko hari n’igihe hashoboraga kuba ukutumvikana kw’abiru k’uzasimbura umwami igihe uyu atanze ari incike (nta mwana yigeze) kandi bitunguranye. N’ubwo byabaga mu ibanga, impaka zabagaho hagati y’abiru kugeza igihe bumvikaniye bo ubwabo uwo batangariza rubanda ko yimye. Umwiru mu kuru niwe wayoboraga imihango yose yagushakisha uzasimbura umwami utanze.

Nk’uko rero tumaze kubivuga ko kwima k’umwami byagombaga kwemezwa n’abiru, ni nabo ubwabo bateguraga imihango yose yo kwimika ku mugaragaro umwami mushya, bakagira n’amabwiriza bamuha agomba kubahiriza byanze bikunze kugirango ubutegetsi bwe busugire busagambe kandi mu gihugu habe impumeko y’umutuzo no kwizera ubudahungabana bw’ubuyobozi.

Amwe muri ayo mabwiriza twavuga ni nk’agira aiti:

–  »nyamuneka kirazira kikaziririzwa ko mu gihugu habaho ugutembagaza ubuyobozi ». Iri ni rimwe mu mabwiriza y’abiru abami bari bakomeyeho cyane mu gusimburana kwabo kandi bagombaga guhora batonga abiru bahisemo igihe bimye ingoma.

–  »Umwami asimburwa n’umwana we warazwe ubwami cyangwa undi wo mu muryango abiru  bateganyije mu gihe umwami atanze ari incike (atabyaye).

Abakurikiranira bugufi amateka y’ubwami mu Rwanda n’uko bwagiye busimburana, bemeza ko umwami Yuhi V Musinga, Mutara III Rudahigwa na Kigeli V Ndahindurwa ari bamwe mu bami b’u Rwanda batubahirije amabwiriza y’ubwiru. Hari nabakabya bakavuga ko ibyo byo kutubahiriza amabwiriza y’ubwiru aribyo byaba byarabaviriyemo kugwa ishyanga. Ibi abenshi babihera ku mpamvu y’uko mu kwimika Yuhi V Musinga ihame ryo kwimikwa n’abiru ritubahirije kuko yimitswe na ba nyirarume Kabare na Ruhinankiko. Iby’uyu mwami byaje kurangira aciriwe ishyanga (i Moba muri Kongo) n’Ababiligi ari naho yaje kugwa akanahatabarizwa (akahashyingurwa).

Kuri Mutara III Rudahigwa, nawe ntiyigeze yimikwa n’abiru ahubwo yimitswe n’Ababiligi nyuma yo gucira se Musinga ishyanga, i Moba muri Kongo Mbiligi yakera (Repubulika iharanira demokarasi ya Kongo, ubu). Uyu mwami Mutara III Rudahigwa nawe yaguye i Bumbura ho mu Burundi mu buryo budasobanutse. Bivugwa ko aho i Burundi yari yagiyeyo mu rugendo hanyuma agafatwa n’indwara bitunguranye bikaza kumuviramo urupfu. Hari bamwe bavuga ko yatewe uwingusho (urushinge rw’uburozi) n’abaganga ku kagambane k’abategetsi b’Ababiligi bamubonagamo kubasuzugura bikabije n’ubutagorwa. Bivugwa ko uyu mwami Mutara III Rudahigwa yakundaga igihugu cye cyane, ko yangaga urunuka abazungu kandi akavuga kuburyo budafifitse ko azarwanyaga uko abishoboye kose ingoma ya gikoloni yapfinagazaga abanyarwanda n’abirabura muri rusange.

Umwami Kigeli V Ndahindurwa ni umuvandimwe wa Rudahigwa yabyawe n’Umwami Musinga. Impamvu Rudahigwa atasimbuwe n’umwana we agasimburwa n’umuvandimwe we n’uko Rudahigwa atigeze abyara. Nk’uko Kigeli V Ndahindurwa atigeze aganirizwa n’abiru ngo abwirwe ibijyanye n’imihango agomba kubahiriza, biri mu byatumye nawe yimikwa n’Ababiligi ihame ryo kwimikwa n’abiru riburizwamo gutyo.

Nk’uko biri mu mateka no mu migenzo y’ubwami ko umwami yimikwa burigihe n’abiru, birumvikana uko uyu Yuhi VI Bushayija yimye. Ikintu kitumvikana namba gusa ni uko yimiye ishyanga; byongeye kandi ubwami bukaba bwaraciwe burundu mu Rwanda n’ubwo nyakwigendera Kigeli V Ndahindurwa we n’abiru be harimo umwiru mukuru Boniface Benzinge batigeze bemera na gato ko ubwami bwaciwe mu Rwanda.

Aha umuntu ntiyabura kwibaza nanone uko abiru ubu bangana, abo aribo n’aho baherereye ndetse n’uko bahura ngo bakomeze imirimo yabo. Umuntu ntiyabura no kibaza niba magingo aya ubwiru bugomba gukomeza kuba amabanga ahererekanywa gusa mu mvuga cyangwa bwashyirwa no munyandiko zajya zitabazwa igihe bibaye ngombwa, cyane cyane mu gukemura impanka n’amakimbirane nk’ibyaranze ibyerekeranye n’ishyingurwa ry’umugogo w’umwami Kigeli V Ndahindurwa.

Ikibazo n’utubazo…

Nyuma y’itanga rwa Kigeli V Ndahindurwa, umuryango w’ubwami wacitsemo ibice bitatu bigaragarira buri wese: hari igice kiri mu mahanga gishyigikiye ikomeza ry’ubwami gakondo kibivuga ku mugaragaro n’ikindi kiri imbere mu gihugu mu Rwanda kibibitse ku mutima; hari kandi n’igice cy’ubutegetsi bwa FPR kivuga ko ibintu byahindutse ko batasubiza amateka inyuma ko ahubwo bagomba kugendana n’ibigezweho (ingoma ya Repubulika) bagakora uko bashoboye ngo baharanire ku guma k’ubutegetsi.

Igice kiri mu mahanga gishyigikiye ikomeza ry’ubwami gakondo gihagarariwe n’umwiru mukuru Boniface Bezinge naho igice kiri imbere mu gihugu mu Rwanda kidashobora gutobora ngo kivuge ku mugaragaro akabari ku mutima ku ikokeza ry’ubwami gakondo bikaba biruhanije kumenye ugihagarariye.  Igice cya gatatu cyo rero, birazwi neza kandi biranigaragaza mu mikorere yacyo yaburi minsi, gihagarariwe n’ubutegetsi bwa FPR burangajwe imbere na Paul Kagame ukora nk’abami aho ibyerekeranye n’ibirango by’ingoma ya Repubulika amaze ku bigerera abisibanganya nkana.

Ubu twandika iyi nkuru, biravugwa ko igice gishyigikiye ubwami gakondo kiri mu Rwanda gishobora nacyo gutangaza mu minsi iri imbere umwami kimitse. Ese ibi nibiramuka bibaye hakanagaragara ko hari abiyita abiru babitangaje nk’uko abiyita  »inama nyarwanda y’ubwiru » bayobowe na Boniface Bezinge babikoze, aho ubwiru ntibuzaba bubaye gashozantambara i Bwami? Bizagira ingaruka ki se ku mateka y’ubwami? Aho ntibizasiga icyasha ubwami n’ubundi bwari busanzwe buvugwaho kuba intandaro na nyirabayazana mu bibazo u Rwanda rwagiye ruhura nabyo kugeza magingo aya. Aha ndashaka kuvuga imyiryane n’intambara z’urudaca z’abaharanira ubutegetsi (kuva ku ngoma ya cyami kugeza magingo aya ku ngoma ya Repubulika).

Ikindi umuntu yakwibaza ni ingaruka byagira ku banyarwanda ubu bari mu gihirahiro, batazi niba bari ngoma ya cyami cyangwa ya  »Repubulika ». Ese birashoboka ko Paul Kagame na FPR ye bakwemera ko hagira utangariza mu gihugu imbere mu Rwanda ko yimitse umwami uyu n’uyu? Ikindi twakwibaza aha ni uburyo Paul Kagame na FPR ye bazitwara mu mihango yo gushyingura nyakwigendera Kigeli  V Ndahindurwa.

Ese umuntu utaraje kumwakira ku kibuga k’indege i Kanombe (kandi bafitanye isano rya hafi) ngo amuhe icyubahiro cy’uwigeze kuyobora u Rwanda – n’ubwo ari igihe gito yakiyoboye – birashoboka ko azitabira imihango yo kumushyingura?? Azubahiriza se imva ye cyangwa bizajagura ayiterere hejuru nk’uko yabigenjerere iya Perezida wa mbere w’u Rwanda, Dominique Mbonyumutwa? Ko hari inkuru zivuga ko bishoboka ko mu kuba inkwakuzi (uw’ibanze) mu gusaba ko umugogo w’umwami watabarizwa mu Rwanda hari hagamijwe kuzagira imva y’umwami urusisiro rw’ubucuruzi (site touristique visant un business) nk’uko bimeze ubu ku Gisozi aho amagufwa y’inzirakarengane, aho ubwami n’abami ntibizaba biteshejwe agaciro inshuro igihumbi?? Tubitege amaso. Ese ubundi kuki umwaami Kigeli  V Ndahindurwa atahyingurwa i Rutare nk’uko bitegwanywa ko ba Kigeli bagomba gushyingurwa i Rutare? Tuzabigarukaho mu nyandiko irambuye itaha aho tuzibaza impamvu n’uko amarimbi y’abami yahiswemo n’uwabitangije.

Urutonde rw’abami b’u Rwanda (bazwi kugeza ubu)

              Amazina         Intangiriro y’ingoma          Indunduro y’ingoma
Gihanga           1081             1114
Kanyarwanda I Gahima          1114             1147
Yuhi wa I Musindi          1147             1180
Ndahiro wa I Ruyange          1180             1213
Ndahiro Ndoba          1213              1246
Ndahiro Samembe          1246              1279
Nsoro Samukondo          1279              1312
Ruganzu I Bwimba          1312              1345
Cyilima I Rugwe          1345              1378
Kigeli I Mukobanya          1378              1418
Mibambwe I Mutabazi          1418              1444
Yuhi II Gahima          1444              1477
Ndahiro II Cyamatare          1477              1510
Ruganzu II Ndori          1510              1543
Mutara I Semugeshi          1543              1576
Kigeli II Nyamuheshera          1576              1609
Mibambwe II Gisanura          1609              1642
Yuhi III Mazimpaka          1642              1675
Cyilima II Rujugira          1675              1708
Kigeli III Ndabarasa           1708              1741
Mibambwe III Sentabyo           1741              1746
Yuhi IV Gahindiro           1746              1802
Mutara II Rwogera           1802              1853
Kigeli IV Rwabugiri           1853              1895
Mibambwe IV Rutalindwa          1895              1896
Yuhi V Musinga          1896              12 Ugushyingo 1931
Mutara III Rudahigwa          12 Ugushyingo 1931             28 Nyakanga 1959
Kigeli V Ndahindurwa           28 Nyakanga 1959            28 Mutarama 1961
Yuhi VI Bushayija           09 Mutarama 2017                –

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