«Ubutabera butabera» ni ingume muri iyi isi ya Rurema!

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05/07/2018, Ubwanditsi

Ubutabera butabera ni ikintu buri wese, iyo ava akagera anyotewe. Iyo usubije amaso inyuma ukareba ibiba n’ibikorwa byihishe inyuma y’ubutabera (harimo n’ibyo bamwe bitirira Imana), hanyuma ugaserengura, usanga ikibazo cy’Ubutabera butabera muri iyi isi ya Rurema, ari agatereranzamba.

Mu bihugu hafi ya byose by’Afrika, kuvuga ubutabera (utiriwe unavuga ubutabera butabera) bisa nko kurota inzozi utazigera ukabya na rimwe. Mu bihugu byiyitirira ko bigendera kuri ”demokarasi”, cyane cyane ibyo ku mugabane w’i Burayi no muri Amerika, n’ubwo bigerageza, bigaragara ko inzira yabyo na yo ikiri ndende.

Bimwe muri ibi bihugu byitwa ko byimitse umuco w’ubwisanzure mu bitekerezo na ”demokarasi”, usanga rimwe na rimwe ubutabera bwabyo ari igicagate cyangwa se bugendera ku marangamutima y’urega n’inyungu bwite igihugu iki n’iki kibibona mo.

Ubwo butabera bwa baringa, burushaho kuba baringa no kugendera ku nyungu zabwo iyo ababuranishwa atari abenegihugu kavukire. Ukutaba abenegihugu kavukire bigira izindi ngaruka zikomeye, ahanini zishingiye ku rurimi abaregwa batumva neza, haba ku ruhande rw’umwunganizi cyangwa ku mucamanza. Izindi ngaruka zikunze kugaragara ziba zishingiye ku muco n’imyumvire y’ibihugu abaregwa bakiriwe mo. Aba bagomba kwigengesera kuri byose, haba ku mushinjacyaha, umwunganizi, kugeza ku mucamanza ubakanira urubakwiye.

Ngiyo ishusho y’abakurikiranyweho ibyaha bikomeye muri ibi bihugu by’iburayi, Canada, ndetse na Amerika, aho abanyarwanda bashinjwa ”Jenoside” bagiye bibona bagizwe abanyabyaha, kabone n’iyo ibi byaha baba ntaho bahuriye na byo.

Umunzani w’« ubutabera butabera » mu gihu kibuditse

Muri iyi nyandiko twise ”Ubutabera butabera ni ingume muri iyi isi ya Rurema”, ntabwo twimirije imbere gushinja cyangwa gushinjura abaregwa, kuko si ko kazi kacu. Nta n’ubwo duhakana cyangwa ngo twemeze ko abaregwa bagize cyangwa batagize uruhare mu byaha bakurikiranyweho. Ako ni akazi k’ubutabera butabogamiye ku nyungu cyangwa amarangamutima ayo ari yo yose.

Ku buryo bw’umwihariko, turagaruka ku mikorere y’ubutabera bwo mu gihugu cya Suwedi (Suède) n’imikoranire yabwo hagati y’icyo gihugu n’u Rwanda, aho abatangabuhamya bashinjura cyangwa bagaragaza imikorere y’ubutabera bwo mu Rwanda (témoins à décharge et de contexte) binubira ibyemezo bikunze gufatwa ku manza z’abanyarwanda bamaze kuburanishwa n’inkiko zo mu gihugu cya Suwedi.

Turaza gusoza inyandiko yacu tubagezaho ubuhamya bw’abunganira abandi mu by’amategeko (avocats), ubuhamya basohoye mu kinyamakuru cyandikwa mu rurimi rw’igisuweduwa (Dagens nyheter-DN), ubu buhamya tukaba twarabwohererejwe n’umusomyi wacu wabushyize mu kinyarwanda, kugirango abatumva uru rurimi rw’amahanga, na bo basobanukirwe.

Ubutabera bwo muri Suwedi bupfana iki n’ubwo mu Rwanda?

Mu gihugu cya Suwedi hamaze gufatwa no kuburanishwa abanyarwanda batatu: Mbanenande Stanislas, Claver Berinkindi, na Théodore Tabaro.

Mbere y’uko aba bakatirwa igifungo cya burundu, inzego z’iperereza n’iza polisi zagiye zitega amatwi ubuhamya bw’abantu batandukanye, babazwaga n’izi nzego ibyerekeranye n’imikorere y’ubutabera bwo mu Rwanda n’uko ibyaha ndengakamere bya ”Jenoside” baregwa byahakorewe muri rusange. Abenshi muri aba batangabuhamya (témoins de contexte), bagaragarije izi nzego ko badahakana ko mu Rwanda habaye «Jenoside», nyamara banagaragarije izi nzego ko ubutabera bwo mu Rwanda bugendera kuri politiki ya «munyangire» n’iyo guhora (vengeance et règlement de compte) ku banyarwanda bamwe na bamwe baturuka mu bwoko bw’abahutu, baregwa icyaha cya jenoside yabaye mu Rwanda mu 1994.

Aba batangabuhamya banagaragarije izi nzego ko, mu rwego rwo gushakira ibirego no kwemeza ibyaha abaregwa, u Rwanda rwagiye rukora uko rushoboye rugashakisha abashinjabinyoma, kugirango icyaha kibonerwe ibimenyetso simusiga.

Abatangabuhamya bagiye batanga ingero zifatika z’abaregwa bagiye babeshyerwa ibyaha, abo u Rwanda rwagiye rugurira kubabeshyera, aba bakaza no kwisubiraho. Urugero rwavuzwe cyane n’urw’umucuranzi w’ikirangirire w’umunyarwanda (Masabo Nyangezi), wahimbiwe ibyaha n’umwe mu bayobozi b’u Rwanda, nyuma uyu akaza gusaba imbabazi uregwa (ariwe Masabo Nyangezi), yemeza ko ari abayobozi b’u Rwanda bamushyizeho agahato ko kumushinja ibinyoma.

Masabo Nyangezi, wanakoze imirimo ikomeye muri Leta yabanjirije iriho ubu mu Rwanda (universitaire/directeur général), yamaze imyaka irenga itandatu mu buroko, afungiwe icyaha cya jenoside atakoze.

Tugarutse ku mfungwa eshatu, zanakatiwe burundu n’inkiko za Suwedi, twakunze no kwibaza ukuntu igihugu kivuga ko kigendera kuri demukarasi n’ubwigenge mu butabera, cyakatiye aba bagabo bose igihano cya burundu, mu gihe imanza zo mu Rwanda (igihugu ubutabera bwacyo bugerwa ku mashyi) zabakatiye igifungo gito, ugereranije n’icyo bahawe muri Suwedi. Mbanenande bivugwa ko yari yarakatiwe igifungo cy’imyaka 30, Tabaro na Berinkindi bakatirwa gufungwa imyaka 19.

Nk’uko bigenda muri ibi bihugu bivuga ko ngo bigendera kuri demukarasi n’ubutabera, igihugu cya Suwede kikimara kubona ibirego byatanzwe na Leta y’u Rwanda, cyafashe aba bagabo batatu, ndetse gitangira kubakoraho amaperereza. Ikigaragara ni uko ibyavuye mu maperereza yakozwe n’abagenzacyaha, n’ibirego by’umushinjacyaha, ari byo byagendeweho mu gutanga ibihano ku baregwa. Abashinjuye abaregwa, usanga mu by’ukuri batarahawe n’urukiko agaciro gahagije, kugira ngo abaregwa barenganurwe.

Tukaba ari yo mpamvu dusa n’aberekana ko ubutabera bwa Suwedi bukorera mu kwaha kwa Leta y’u Rwanda. Ikindi dushingiraho twemeza ibingibi, ni uko mu rubanza rw’uwitwa Mbanenande Stanislas, umwunganizi mu mategeko (avocat), ubarizwa mu rwunge rw’ababuranira abandi muri Canada (barreau), yasabye urukiko rwa Stockholm gutanga inkunga ye muri uru rubanza, urukiko ruramuheza.

Maitre Philippe Larochelle (ni ryo zina rye), icyifuzo cye yari yakinyujije kuri mugenzi we Thomas Nilsson, waburaniraga Mbanenande. Yaba uyu, yaba na Philippe Larochelle, batangazwa n’uko urukiko rwaburanishije Mbanenande rutagaragaje impamvu rwanze ko uyu munyamategeko w’umunyakanada arugaragara mo.

Philippe Larochelle, ikifuzo cye cyari kinashingiye k’uko ari we wakurikiranye imanza z’abanyakibuye (aho Mbanenande avuka), baburanishijwe n’urukiko rwa Arusha icyaha cya génocide, akaba yarashakaga kugaragaza isura nyayo y’ubutabera bwo mu Rwanda, atagamije gushinja cyangwa gushinjura Stanislas Mbanenande.

Ikibazo twibajije, gishobora no kwibazwa n’undi wese, kikaba giteye gitya: ubucamanza bw’igihugu cya Suwedi bwaba bugendera ku marangamutima y’u Rwanda, cyangwa se bwaba bugendera ku birego by’uruhande rumwe ubushinjacyaha buba bwatanze, noneho uruhare rw’abunganira abaregwa rugasa n’urupfukiranywe n’amategeko ashingiye ku nyungu z’ibihugu byombi?

Ikindi wenda umuntu yakwibaza, gifite n’ishingiro ni uko abunganira abaregwa (avocats) bashobora kuba badafite ubushobozi buhagije cyangwa baba bafite ubushake buke bwo kunyomoza ibirego umushinjacyaha aba yashyikirije urukiko, cyane cyane ko abaregwa baba badafite ubushobozi bwo kubihembera, dore ko yaba umushinjacyaha n’umwunganizi, bombi bahembwa na Leta ya Suwedi.

Inyandiko musoma mu nsi aha mu rurimi rw’igisuweduwa (iyo nkuru ushobora kuyisomera aha hakurikira niba uzi urwo rurimi:www.dn.se/debatt/svenska-aklagare-springer-den-rwandiska-diktaturens-arenden), yashyizwe ahagaragara n’abunganira uwitwa Théodore Tabaro, uyu akaba amaze igihe gito akatiwe gufungwa ubuzima bwe bwose, ni inyandiko yashyizwe mu rurimi rw’ikinyarwanda n’umusomyi wacu, kugirango abatumva igisuweduwa bamenye ibyihishe inyuma y’imanza z’aba banyarwanda, bakurikiranyweho icyaha cya jenoside mu gihugu cya Suwedi, by’umwihariko akarengane umukiriya wabo yakorewe n’ubushinjacyaha, ndetse n’ubutabera bwa Suwedi muri rusange.

«Umushinjacyaha wa Suède yakurikiye buhumyi amira bunguri ikinyoma cy’umunyagitugu w’u Rwanda»

Ingaruka z’uko umushinjacyaha wa Suwede yakurikiye buhumyi itekinika ry’umunyagitugu w’u Rwanda ni uko uyu munsi umukiriya wacu Theodore aza guhanishwa icyaha cya genocide yabaye mu Rwanda. Uretse ko kuba ageretsweho urusyo arengana, hiyonyereyeho gucecekeshwa burundu. Twibutse ko Théodore yigeze gutinyuka mu gutanga ubuhamya mu rukiko rwa Suwede rwaregwagamo umuntu wanekeraga Leta y’ u Rwanda. Aya ni amagambo yanditswe na Thomas Bodström na Anna Wahlström.

Perezida w’ u Rwanda Paul Kagame yubatse inzego z’ubuyobozi zo gutsembatsemba no kwivugana abafite ibitekerezo bitari nk’ibye kugirango yubake akazu ndetse akarusho ni uko yahinduye itegeko nshinga rituma azaguma kugundira utegetsi kugera mu mwaka wa 2034. Igihe cyose amahanga aguma kwibutswa ubwicanyi bwabaye mu Rwanda ntihabeho gufungura no kurebesha ijisho ricengera ku bugizi bwa nabi bwa Paul Kagame, nta kizatuma ataguma kugundira ubutegetsi atekanye. Kurisha iturufu y’icyaha cya genoside mu mahanga yose no gutera ubwoba abatavuga rumwe nawe, ni intwaro ze za kirimbuzi za buri munsi.

U Rwanda ni igihugu gikomeje kubaka ubutegetsi bw’igitugu, bugakoresha imbaraga nyinshi mu guhimbira no kugerekaho ibyaha ndetse no guhigisha uruhindu abatavuga rumwe n´ubutegetsi bwa FPR bitwaje abashinjacyaha n’inkiko zo mu bihugu by´amahanga hakoreshejwe itekinika kabuhariwe. Ibi si umwihariko wacu, twe twunganira Theodore ahubwo n’imiryango mpuzamahanga yubahiriza uburenganzi bwa kiremwa muntu nka za Amnesty, Human Rights Watch yagiye yunga mu ryacu, bavuga kandi berekana ko politique y’ikinyoma ya Kagame Paul yo gusiga icyaha no guhiga abadatekereza kimwe nka we yubatse, ndetse akaba ashinjwa no kubica no kubakurikirana mu buhungiro. Ibyo byose byagiye byemezwa n’abakoranye nawe bamuhunze.

Ubu noneho muri Suwede isura y’ubutegetsi bwa Kagame yarahindutse

Minisiteri y’ububanyi n’amahanga muri Suwede inenga u Rwanda ku birebana n’ubwisanzure bw’abaturage n’ibirebana n’uburenganzira bw’ikiremwa muntu, cyane cyane ku ihohoterwa rikorerwa abatavuga rumwe n’iyo Leta bikabaviramo no gufungwa bahereye mu guhimbirwa ibyaha.

Police ishinzwe iperereza mu kureba abahungabanya umutekano n’iterabwoba muri Suède yemeza ko u Rwanda rwiyambika uruhu rw’intama kandi ari ikirura.

U Rwanda rwambara ikote rya demokarasi ya nyirarureshwa kandi rugendera ku butegetsi bw’igitugu kabuhariwe. Nyamara ibyo byose umushinjacyaha wa Suwede yahumye amaso arashinyiriza arabyirengagiza ahitamo kurenga ukuri ashyigikira ikinyoma cy’itekinika ry’ u Rwanda n’abahimbabinyoma barwo.

Theodore yahunze u Rwanda muri 1994 we n’umuryango we nyuma aza gusabirwa n’umuryango mpuzamahanga wita ku mpunzi kuba muri Suwede kubera ko nta mutekano yari afite mu Rwanda.

Muri Suwede yaharaniye kwibeshaho no kwinjira mu muryango w’abasuédois. Amaze kwiga amashuri asabwa n’igihugu, Theodore yabaye umushoferi wa bisi abibangikanya n’akazi uwo bashinganye urugo akora nk’umuforomo mu by’ubuvuzi. We n’uwo bashakanye bafitanye abana bane. Theodore yari umunyapolitiki urwanya Leta ya FPR ndetse akanitabira imyigaragambyo yategurwaga n´abatavuga rumwe n´ubutegetsi bw´igitugu bwa Leta ya Kagame. Theodore yandikaga mu binyamakuru inyandiko zirimo ibitekerezo binenga Leta y’igitugu ya Kigali. Kugera muri 2013 nta kibazo yigeze agirana na Leta y’u Rwanda. Byose byatangiye ubwo yatangaga ubuhamya mu rukiko muri Suwede ubwo haburanaga umuntu wari wafatiwe muri Suwede afatiwe mu bikorwa byo kuneka abanyarwanda baba muri Suwede atumwe na Leta ya Kigali nyuma akaza guhamwa n’icyaha ndetse akabihanirwa.

Mbere y’uko atanga ubwo buhamya ntabwo iyo Leta ya Kigali yari imukeneye. Nyuma y’ubwo buhamya ni bwo hahise haza ibirego bimurega kugira uruhare mu bwicanyi bw’abantu hafi 1000 bishwe, Leta isaba kumwohereza mu Rwanda cyangwa kumucira urubanza aho ari muri Suwede.

Mu buryo bw’imvaho, ibihimbano by’ibyaha byacuzwe na Leta y’agatsiko ka FPR maze babigereka ku muntu twunganira. Nyamara ibimenyetso mu nyandiko zo mu nkiko z’imanza zagiye ziba kuri genoside yabaye mu Rwanda, nta na hamwe Theodore yigeze agaragara mbere y’ubwo buhamya yatanze kuri uwo mu maneko wanekeraga Leta y’u Rwanda muri Suwede. Uretse igitabo kimwe gusa banditsemo ko yikoreye amapine igihe kimwe hamwe n’ikiswe inkiko gacaca zo mugihugu cye nazo zakorewe itekinika (Impapuro za Gacaca zavanywe mu Rwanda zerekana ko yaburanishijwe na gacaca ahibereye ndetse ko yazisinyiyeho, ariko abamusinyiye bigannye umukono we ku buryo wagirango ni we koko kuko banditse amazina ye mu mukono we, nyamara ibimenyetso bigaragaza ko yabaga muri Suwede).

Byatangaje abantu benshi kubona abantu 44 baje biteguye kumushinja bamugerekaho ibyaha bya genoside. Nyamara nta liste n’imwe ya Leta y’u Rwanda yigeze agaragaraho nk’umuntu ushakishwa ndetse akaba yabaga muri Suwede atihishe kuko yari afitanye buri gihe imibonano na ambassade y’u Rwanda iba muri Suwede ntabwo byabujijwe gushyirwa mu mateka y’abicanyi.

Ikibitera ni uko mu Rwanda bikiriza ”Ndiyo bwana”, nta muntu n’umwe mu Rwanda wemerewe kuvuga ngo ”oya” mu gihe umunyagitugu agusabye kuvuga ”yego” mu gushinja umuntu ashaka kugerekaho icyaha cy’ubwicanyi. Mu Rwanda hari ubuyobozi bwa polisi ishinzwe ubutasi mu gihugu, igipolisi gishinzwe iperereza muri Suwede gishyira polisi mu cyiciro kimwe nk’iyo mu gihugu cya Iran ku birebana n’imikorere n’imbaraga bishyirwa mu kugenzura abaturage, iyo mikorere ikaba yubatse mu mirwi ituma abaturage bacungwa cyane. Imirimo yose iremereye ya Leta igenzurwa n’agatsiko k’iyo Leta. Mu cyaro hari imikorere y’ubuyobozi yitwa inzu 10 ziyoborwa na Nyumbakumi, uwo nyumbakumi akaba ari umwizerwa w’iyo Leta akaba ariwe utanga amakuru yo mu karere bikazamuka bikagera ku gatsiko, nako kagakoresha uwo muyoboro mu gihe haba hari icyo agatsiko gashaka gukoresha cyangwa gukorera uwo gashaka kwikiza gakoresheje rya tekinika ry’ibinyoma ryako. Ni muri ubwo buryo abashinja abantu bagerwaho maze bakitwa abatangabuhamya.

Abenshi mu batangabuhamya koko baba barabaye muri ibyo bihe by’ubwicanyi. Ibyo bituma babasha gushinja umuntu wese bakoresheje ibyo baciyemo mu gihe agatsiko kaba kasabye ko bagafasha gushinja umuntu kageretseho ibinyoma.

Ibyo ni ibintu bisanzwe ko umuntu umwe ashobora gukoreshwa n’iyo Leta mu gushinja abantu benshi ikintu kimwe cyabereye ahantu hamwe, ibyo mwabisanga mu buhamya bw’umunyamategeko ku by’uburenganzira bwa muntu Charles Taku. Ushinje umuntu yizezwa guhabwa ibihembo ndetse akabona n’indishyi z’akababaro z’amafaranga umuntu wo mu Rwanda ashobora gukorera imyaka n’imyaniko.

Ni muri ubwo buryo abantu benshi mu bahunze iriya Leta y’agatsiko bagerageje gusobanura uburyo iriya Leta ya FPR ihimbira abantu ibyaha ariko ntibyatumye umushinjacyaha ava ku izima ngo yizere ubuhamya batanze. Naho umushinjacyaha avuga ko ubuhamya bw´abashinja ari ubwo kwizerwa kuko ngo aribwo abonamo ukuri, ikibazo ni uko uwo mushinjacyaha abo bashinja yazanye hamwe n’inararibonye mu byo kwibuka witwa Torun Lindholm aribo yizeye, nyamara n’ubwo umushinjacyaha yafashe ibyo bashinje nk’ukuri ariko uwo mucukumbuzi mu byo kwibuka wazanywe n’umushinjacyaha yavuze ko bitoroshye kumenya ubeshya cyangwa uvuga ukuri.

Abashinjaga bose bashakwaga na Leta y’u Rwanda ndetse akaba ariyo ibazana mu rukiko kubera iyo mpamvu nta buryo bushoboka bwo kugenzura umuntu wese waje gushinja muri urwo rubanza, ntibishoboka no kumenya uburyo batojwe gushinja.

Mu rukiko umushinjacyaha wa Suwede yavuze ko inkiko zo mu Rwanda zikora neza. Akaba ari umwihariko we kuko nta wundi muntu wabivuze mu rukiko. Ntabwo umunshinjacyaha yigeze abona ko bitoroshye gutanga ubutabera butabogamye mu gihugu kiyobowe n’umunyagitugu, kubera ko ikintu gikunze kubaho ni uko iyo hatajemo kubogama umunyagitugu ariwe uhamwa n’icyo cyaha.

Intege nke z’umushinjacyaha muri uru rubanza ni uko nta ngingo n’imwe yisunze mu mategeko ya Suwede muri uru rubanza. Ikibabaje kandi ni uko nta ngingo n’imwe n’ubundi umuntu ashobora guheraho uyu munsi aca uru rubanza.

Mu manza z’urukozasoni zabaye muri Suwede nk’urugero urubanza rw’uwitwa Thomas Quick n´urubanza rw’uwitwa Kevin zagombye kuba zarasigiye isomo abashinjacyaha ba Suwede. Ariko aho urubanza rwa Thomas Quick n’urwa Théodore Tabaro bitandukaniye ni uko Quick yemeye ibyaha byose yashinjwaga ariko Theodore we nta cyaha na kimwe yemeye kuva urubanza rwatangira. Dufashe ingero ku bandi banyagitugu urugero twatanga ni president Robert Mugabe wa ZIMBABWE mu ntangiriro yari akunzwe cyane ari icyamamare nk’uko bimeze kuri Kagame w’ubu ariko itekinika rya Kagame mu gushinja abantu ibinyoma nirishyirwa ahagaragara ibye bizamera nk’ibya Mugabe w’ubu.

Ukuri ni uko uburyo umunyagitugu wo mu Rwanda akoresha ashinja abantu ibinyoma buzarenga umupaka bigakoreshwa mu mategeko mpanabyaha ya Suwede. Nyuma y’ibimenyetso byose byagaragajwe mu kwiregura muri uru rubanza ntabwo bizashoboka ko umushinjacyaha avuga ko hari ibyo atigeze amenya ku bibera mu Rwanda. Ikibabaje kandi ni uko gusa umuntu w’inzirakarengane azafungwa muri Suwede, agateshwa urugo rwe, umugore we n’abana azira Ibyaha atakoze».

 

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