Rwanda/France: Urunturuntu rukomeje kunuka

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Mu gukumira ko abantu bahora bashotorana cyangwa barebana ay’ingwe ubuziraherezo, abakurambere bacu batanga inama baca uyu mugani ugira uti:  »findi findi irutwa na so araroga ». Mu mibanire y’u Rwanda n’Ubufransa yagiye irangwa kenshi na kenshi no guterana amagambo, ndetse no gushotorana hakoreshejwe inyandiko zisemburana hagati y’ibi bihugu byombi, uwabacira uyu mugani ntiyaba abeshye cyangwa se yibeshye. Uretse no kubacira uyu mugani:  »findi findi irutwa na so araroga », uwanavuga ko noneho aho ibintu bigeze ari iwa Ndabaga ntiyaba arengereye cyangwa yihenze. Muri iyi nyandiko turasesengura tunagaruke ku mwuka mubi wakomeje kuranga u Rwanda n’Ubufransa kuva inyeshyamba za FPR-Inkotanyi zafata ubutegetsi kugeza magingo aya, aho noneho Leta y’u Rwanda yasohoye urutonde rw’abasirikari 22 b’Ubufransa ishinja kugira uruhare muri  »Jenoside » mu mwaka w’ 1994.

Kuva inyeshyamba za FPR-Inkotanyi zafata ubutegetsi ku ruhembe rw’umuheto muri 1994, umubano w’u Rwanda n’Ubufaransa waranzwe no kwishishanya no gucengacengana gukomeye mu mikoranire no muri dipolomasi. Ubutegetsi bw’i Kigali n’i Paris bwakomeje gushyira abantu mu rujijo no gutuma abaturage b’ibi bihugu byombi baba ingaruzwa-muheto z’ingengabitekerezo ya politiki ishingiye ku macenga twakwita umukino w’injangwe n’imbeba. Ibi byatumye abaturage batuye ibi bihugu byombi bibona mu ndorerwamo ya muzunga, aho rimwe na rimwe usanga bamwe bita abayobozi babo banyirabayazana b’umwuka mubi uranga imibanire y’ibi bihugu byombi kuva muri 1994 kugeza ubu. Hari ndetse n’ababonye muri bo imitekerereze n’umuco wo guhishirana mu makosa, akaba ari byo bamwe bashingiraho bavuga ko gushotorana kwa Kigali n’ i Paris ari nk’umukino w’imbeba n’injangwe.

Abajya kure mu isesengura mu mibereho y’abantu n’iy’ibihugu, usanga ndetse bemeza ko n’abaturage b’ibi bihugu byombi baragiye rimwe na rimwe barebana hagati yabo mu ndorerwamo yo kwitana nkana cyangwa se bitagambiriwe (kubera ubujiji= ignorance)  »umugome kabombo » cyangwa se  »kabuhariwe », ku ruhande rumwe; cyangwa se ku rundi ruhande  »intungane z’Imana » (une idéologie dualiste ou mieux encore manichéenne où il y a, d’un côté, les  »gentils ou les bons » et, de l’autre, les  »méchants », les  »mauvais » ou les  »sauvages »).

Iyi mitekerereze yagiye yenyegezwa no kudatinyuka kubwizanya ukuri k’ubuyobozi bw’ibihugu byombi no gukomeza guhomerera iyonkeje ngo hatagira ukanga rutenderi ku ruhande uru n’uru. Abanyarwanda bamwe bumvishijwe ko abafaransa muri rusange ari babi ko muri kamere yabo ari abicanyi; ko bashyigikiye abahekuye u Rwanda muri 1994; abandi na bo babona ndetse banumvishwa ko abafaransa ari intungane z’Imana (les gentils) ko bakoze uko bashoboye bagatabara abanyarwanda igihe byari bikomeye amahanga arebera (bagakiza abantu bamwe, abandi bakababicana kubera ubushobozi buke).

Ku ruhande rw’abaturage b’ubufaransa n’abanyaburayi muri rusange na ho byabaye uko: bamwe bumvishyijwe cyangwa batekereza ko abanyarwanda muri kamere yabo ari abanyamusozi n’inyamaswa (les méchants/sauvages) n’abicanyi kabuhariwe; ko ubwicanyi ndengakamere bwabaye hagati yabo ari ikintu kiri muri kamere y’abirabura muri rusange. Ibi byaje bitsindagira ingengabitekerezo zari nzaragiye zikwirakwizwa cyane cyane mu binyejana bya 18 na 19 zivuga ko muri Afurika muri rusange hari ubwoko bw’abavukanye imbuto kandi bufite ubwenge kamere, ukwemera n’imitekerereze byegereye iby’abanyaburayi n’ubundi bwoko bukiri kure cyane mu mu mitekerereze. Ibi byatumye mu mizo yambere ya nyuma ya  »Jenoside » iyo wavugaga ko uri umunyarwanda aho uri hose wagombaga gusobanura neza uruhande uherereyemo: urw’ubwoko « bwatoranijwe » n’Imana (les gentils/bons naturellement=abatutsi) cyangwa se « ubwavumwe » (les méchants/mauvais naturellement=abahutu).

Benshi mu banyarwanda baguye muri uwo mutego wo kwita bene wabo b’abahutu abicanyi kabombo (les méchants/mauvais) no guha umwanya iyo mitekerereze y’igicagate y’abazungu gukwirakwira; abandi na bo kubera ipfunwe ryo gucishwa bugufi nkana, bararuciye bararumira kugira ngo babone indaro mu bihugu byabakiriye cyangwa bibatera inkunga mu dushinga twabo dutandukanye. Rimwe na rimwe kandi, iki cyiciro cyagiye gipfukamira abo bacanshuro mu gushaka amaramuko bityo bikaba ngombwa ko rimwe na rimwe babeshya ko na bo ari abatutsi cyangwa se bifitemo udusigisigi tw’inkomoko n’amaraso by’abatutsi. Ibi na byo byatije umurindi iriya ngengabitekerezo y’amacakubiri ashingiye ku kwita bamwe ba  »Ruharwa »,  »ibivume n’inyamaswa kabombo ». Ibi byatumye kandi bamwe mu batutsi biyumvamo ko bafite indangagaciro n’ubumuntu biri heju y’ibyabavandimwe babo b’abahutu. Bamwe mu bahutu babyemeye gutyo kuko babonaga nta kundi byagenda; ko ariko koko bavutse cyangwa se baremwe (fatalité, fatum); abandi bo bakomeje kubirwanya no kubyamaganira kure. Nguko uko ingengabitekerezo ya  »RUVUMWA na MICO-MYIZA » (les bons ou gentils= abatutsi et les méchants ou mauvais= abahutu) yashinze imizi ikamunga buhoro buhoro imibanire n’imikoranire y’u Rwanda n’Ubufransa.

Tukiri kuri iyi ngingo, nta n’uwakwirengagiza kuvuga ku murimo utoroshye bamwe mu bahutu n’abatutsi bakoze wo kwerekana ko ikibazo shingiro cy’u Rwanda uhereye ku mateka yacyo atari amoko, ahubwo ko gishingiye ku myumvire y’udutsiko utu n’utu buri gihe twiyitirira ubwoko mu gihe iki n’iki, kugira ngo twikubire ibyiza by’igihugu tunagire ingaruzwamuheto abaturage. Iki cyiciro cy’ababantu cyabaye umusemburo wo gusubiza isura umunyarwanda aho ari hose n’uko ari kose (umuhutu cyangwa umututsi) no guhindura buhoro buhoro imyumvire y’igicagate (ubunyamaswa kamere n’ubutagatifu kavukire) yagiye yigishwa na bagashakabuhake babifashijwemo n’abakurikiye indonke cyangwa abo inda zarenze bo mu moko yose.

 Ubundi buryo urunturuntu rwenyegejwe

 Nyuma y’uko FPR-Inkotanyi ifata ubutegetsi ku mbunda, Paris na Kigali bakomeje kurenzaho bibwira ko umurenzo ahari uzera ibijumba, none ubu ibintu bigeze iwa Ndabaga. Kudacana uwaka hagati y’ibi bihugu byombi bikomoka ariko cyane cyane ku mateka y’ishyaka politiki FPR-Inkotanyi iyoboye igihugu cy’u Rwanda ubu itemeranywaho na gato n’abatavuga rumwe na yo bibumbiye mu mashyaka cyangwa batayarimo (personnes considérées par Kigali comme opposants politiques): FPR-Inkotanyi yigisha yivuye inyuma ko guhera muri 1959 hacuzwe umugambi mubisha wo kurimbura abatutsi ngo hakanakwirakwizwa ingengabitekerezo ya  »Jenoside ». Kubwa FPR-Inkotanyi, iyi ngengabitekerezo ya  »Jenoside » yarigishijwe, icengezwa buhoro buhoro mu myumvire y’abanyarwanda, cyane cyane ariko abo mu bwoko bw’abahutu. Kubwa FPR-Inkotanyi n’inkomamashyi zayo, bemeza nta shiti ko iyi ngengabitekerezo yo kurimbura abatutsi yacuzwe mu gihe cy’ubutegetsi bwa Grégoire Kayibanda bu bifashijwemo by’umwihariko na Kiliziya Gatolika; hanyuma ikigishwa cyane ku gihe cy’ubutegetsi bwa Juvénal Habyarimana. FPR-Inkotanyi ikomeza yemeza ko abafaransa bafashije ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana kuyinononsora no kuyishyira mu bikorwa kuva icyo gihe kugeza muri 1994 ubwo abatutsi n’abahutu batari bake (kugeza ubu batazwi neza umubare nyawo) bahasize ubuzima.

Nicolas Sarkozy yari yagerageje kubyutsa umubano. Hano yari kumwe na Paul Kagame mu Rwanda mu w'2010

Ubufransa bwagerageje kubyutsa umubano n’Urwanda biba iby’ubusa.  Abayobozi b’Ubufransa mu Rwanda m’uw’2010: uhereye ibumoso: Bernard Kouchner , hagati: Nicolas Sarkozy naho iburyo Paul Kagame (iburyo).

 

 

Ubufaransa kuva icyo gihe kugeza magingo aya bwagiye bushaka gushimisha Paul Kagame na FPR ye maze bagafata abahoze mu buyobozi cyangwa se abakoranye bugufi na nyakwigendera Juvénal Habyarimana. Usibye ibyo kandi bwagiye bukora ikinamico ryo kwima cyangwa kwaka ibyangombwa byo kuba mu Bufaransa bamwe mu banyarwanda batungwa agatoki na FPR-Inkotanyi hagamijwe ariko cyane cyane kureba uko bashimisha Paul Kagame cyangwa se kureba uko yacururuka igihe yabaga yibasiye ku mugaragaro Ubufaransa. Aha umuntu yatanga ingero z’ukuntu Ubufaransa bwagiye bubyinisha muzunga mu nkiko umufasha wa nyakwigendera Perezida Juvénal Habyarimana n’uburyo bwamwimye impapuro zimwemerera kuba mu Bufaransa ku buryo bwemewe n’amategeko. Hari kandi n’ ikinamico ry’imanza zitandukanye zirimo urwa Major Rosa Kabuye abantu batigeze bamenya niba yaragizwe umwere cyangwa se niba Ubufaransa bwarasanze budafite ububasha bwo ku muburanisha, urwa Padri Wenceslas Munyeshyaka wagizwe umwere nyuma y’imyaka makumyabiri (la justice française a prononcé un non-lieu à son bénéfice), urwa capitaine Pascal Simbikangwa n’ubu rugikomeje n’izindi n’izindi…

Aha na none twakwibutsa imikino yagiye ikinwa hagati ya Kigali na Paris yerekeranye n’ibyegeranyo (rapports) kugeza ubu bitagize icyo bigeraho kigaragara mu rwego rw’ubutabera cyangwa se mu kongera kugarura cyangwa gutsura umubano n’imikoranire myiza hagati y’Ubufaransa n’Urwanda. Ku ruhande rw’Ubufaransa twavuga nk’ibyegeranyo abacamanza Jean-Louis Bruguière n’icya Marc Trévidic; na ho ku ruhande rw’u Rwanda ho tukavuga icya nyakwigendera Jean de Dieu Mucyo, icya Jean Mutsinzi, n’iki kije ubu aho Leta y’Urwanda ishinja abasirikari bakuru b’ubufaransa 22 kugira uruhare muri  »jenoside ».

François Hollande na Paul Kagame bahuriye i Buruseli mu nama y'Ubumwe bw'Uburayi n'Afurika mu w'2015

François Hollande na Paul Kagame bahuriye i Buruseli mu nama y’Ubumwe bw’Uburayi n’Afurika mu w’2015

Uko ibintu bihagaze n’uko mbona ejo h’umubano w’u Rwanda n’Ubufaransa

Iyo usubije amaso inyuma ukitegereza ukuntu Paul Kagame yakomeje kwibasira mu madisikuru ye Ubufaransa ariko bwo bukicecekera bukaruca bukarumira, wakongera ugasubiza amaso inyuma ukareba uburyo Leta y’u Rwanda yafunze nkana inzu ndagamuco y’Ubufaransa (Centre culturel franco-rwandais), ubufaransa bukaruca bukarumira none ubu ikaba yaranasenywe burundu; wakongera gusubiza amaso inyuma ukibuka uko u Rwanda rusa n’urwavanye mu mashuri yarwo ururimi rw’igifaransa, ibyo byonyine byerekana ko kuva FPR ikiri ku butegetsi mu Rwanda nta migenderanire n’imikoranire myiza izigera ibaho na gato hagati y’Ubufaransa n’u Rwanda.

Ku rundi ruhande, iyo usubije amaso inyuma ukareba uko Ubufaransa bwagiye bufata « minenembwe » ibirego Leta y’u Rwanda iyobowe na FPR-Inkotanyi iburega; ukitegereza ukuntu bukurikiranira bya hafi ibibera mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari, n’uburyo burwanira kujya gucungera umutekano mu Burundi (ariko kuri njye ni ukujya kurebera gusa), usanga amahereza bazafatanya n’ibindi bihugu bifite inyungu muri kariya karere mu kwigizayo Paul Kagame na FPR ye. Iyo witegereje neza usanga imizinga amaherezo igiye kuvamo imyibano bugufi aha; bityo inzira ikaba nyabagendwa mu kujya muri Kongo kwishakirayo amabuye y’agaciro nk’uko ubu ibindi bihugu by’abongereza n’abanyamerika babikorayo banyuze ku biraro byabo bizwi ari byo Paul Kagame, Museveni na Kabila.

Alain Juppé ntatinya kuvuga adaciye ku ruhande ikibazo cy'u Rwanda. Birakaza cyane Kigali

Alain Juppé ntatinya kuvuga adaciye ku ruhande ikibazo cy’u Rwanda. Birakaza cyane Kigali

Aha rero iyo usesenguye neza, usanga hakigwa neza uburyo ibi bihugu bisahura kariya karere bikumvikana uburyo byakwigabagabanya umutungo kamere wa kariya karere bitarinze kurasanirayo; ahubwo bakoresheje amayeri mashya yo kwimika abo bizeye ko bakorera inyungu zabo batabihenuraho nk’uko Paul Kagame ubu abikora. Muri make basanga Paul Kagame amaze kurengwa kandi ko ubuzima bwe buri mu marembera. Aha icyo nshingiraho mvuga ko abafaransa barekereje, ko barimo kumvikana na ba shebuja ba Paul Kagame, ni uko haba kuva muri 1994 kugeza ubu, ubona badashaka guta igihe cyabo batukana na Paul Kagame, kuko bazi neza ko naramuka atishwe n’indwara y’umutima agendana, azaterwa ishoti vuba aha na bashebuja b’abongereza n’abanyamerika mu buryo bwo kurengera inyungu zabo babona ko atangiye gutatira. Ikindi umuntu yashingiraho ni uko iyo uroye ingendo za hato na hato ubu asigaye akorera mu bihugu y’abarabu kurusha muri Amerika cyangwa i Burayi, usanga Paul Kagame ubwe adagadwa. Uko guhora ku kidodo cy’urupfu: ko yakwicwa na ba shebuja bamaze kumuhararukwa cyangwa se ko yahitanwa n’iyo ndwara y’umutima agendana (burya ngo imwe mu mpamvu zatumye ahitana muganga we Gasakure ngo ni uko hari abo yabibwiye kandi Kagame we atarashakaga ko bimenyekana) biri mu bituma Ubufaransa butuza ahubwo bugacungira bugufi uko ejo bwabona icyanzu muri kariya karere butiriwe bwanduranya na nyakwigendera.

None se ko tutazi igihe n’isaha Paul Kagame azagendera n’uko ejo namara kwigendera bizamera tubyifatemo gute ubu ? Duhebere se urwaje tubiture Imana tuvuge ngo nta kundi (fatum) cyangwa duharanire ko twagira ijambo mu miyoborere y’ibihugu byacu no gucunga umutungo-kamere wabyo kabone n’iyo abarekereje babituvutsa nk’uko byagendekeye nyakwigendera Patrice Lumumba? Ahangaha buri wese ni uguhitamo kandi azi ko ibyo ahisemo ibyo ari byo byose bifite inyungu (bwite cyangwa rusange) ndetse n’ingaruka haba ku giti cy’umuntu ubwe cyangwa ku buryo bwa rusange. Ubugwari n’ubutwari bwacu imbere y’ibyo dufitiye uburenganzira (umutungo-kamere n’imiyoborere y’akarere k’ibiyaga bigari) bizagaragazwa n’amateka y’ejo hazaza nkozaho imitwe y’intoki. Duhitemo rero tutihenze tutanagendeye ku marangamutima cyangwa ngo dutwarwe n’irari cyangwa gukurikira indonke.

Tharcisse Semana

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