Rwanda/Burundi: Politiki mbi yazambije umubano, none bigeze aho u Burundi bwanga ibiribwa bivuye mu Rwanda

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22/04/2017, yanditswe na Jean-Claude Mulindahabi

U Rwanda n’u Burundi ni ibihugu bihuriye kuri byinshi ku buryo politiki y’ababiyobora yakagombye kuba isigasira umubano mwiza. Nyamara kuva mu w’2015, umubano warazambye ku buryo buteye impungenge abatuye ibi bihugu byombi. Byageze aho n’ubuhahirane mu bucuruzi buhagarikwa. U Burundi bwafashe icyemezo ko nta mucuruzi wabwo wongera kujyana ibintu mu Rwanda, ndetse, ejobundi Leta iyobowe na Petero Nkurunziza ifata icyemezo cyo kutemera ko hagira ibiribwa byinjira mu Burundi bivuye mu Rwanda; ibi bikaba byari bigiye kwinjizwa n’Ishami ry’Umuryango w’abibumbye rishinzwe ibiribwa, PAM (Programme alimentaire mondial). Ibi bibazo bifite ingaruka nyinshi kandi mbi ku baturage. Uruhare rw’abayobora ibi bihugu ni uruhe? Ese hari ubushake bugaragara mu kubikemura? Ni nde nyirabayazana?

Abategetsi bakuru b’u Rwanda n’u Burundi bamaze imyaka isaga ibiri badacana uwaka. Perezida w’u Rwanda ndetse na bamwe mu bategetsi b’u Burundi bagiye banyuzamo imvugo zikarishye, buri wese atavuga neza mugenzi we. U Burundi bushinja u Rwanda guha rugari abashaka kurutera ndetse no kubaha imyitozo ya gisirikare. Nyamara, u Rwanda rubihakana rwivuye inyuma. Leta y’u Rwanda na yo yashinje iy’u Burundi guha icyuho cyangwa icyanzu abarwanyi ba FDLR. Ibi, abarundi na bo ntibabikozwa. Abarundi bavuze kenshi ko ubutegetsi bwa Paul Kagame bushaka kwivanga mu bibera i Burundi mu nzira mbi. Hari n’igihe abantu bagize ubwoba ko intambara ishobora kurota hagati y’ibihugu byombi.

Umubano wazambye cyane kuva mu w’2015

Kimwe mu byateje umutekano muke i Burundi kuva mu w’2015, harimo ko hari abatarishimiye manda ya gatatu ya Perezida Nkurunziza. Nyuma y’aho, hanavuzwe ko hari abashatse guhirika ku ngufu ubutegetsi bwe (coup-Etat), bamwe muri bo bakaba barahungiye mu Rwanda. Ibihe byakurikiyeho byaranzwe n’urwikekwe ndetse n’ubwicanyi ku baturage, hari n’abategetsi ndetse n’abashinzwe umutekano bayiguyemo. Imbonerakure ziri mu bashinjwe kugira uruhare mu bikorwa by’urugomo n’ubwicanyi. Mu kwezi kwa Nyakanga, umwaka ushize, u Burundi bwatangaje ko bwafashe mpiri abarwanyi basaga 50, bukavuga ko ngo baturutse mu Rwanda. Muri uko kwezi kandi, u Burundi bwahamagaje igitaraganya intumwa zabwo zari mu nama y’Ubumwe bw’Afurika i Kigali, buvuga ko butizeye umutekano wabo.

Ibihugu byombi ni nk’abavandimwe

U Rwanda n’u Burundi ni ibihugu bituranye, bihuje ururimi (itandukaniro ni rito cyane). Ibi bihugu bihuriye kuri byinshi ku mateka, byombi byakolonijwe n’u Bubiligi. Iby’amoko y’abahutu, abatutsi n’abatwa babihuriyeho. Ibi bihugu byenda kungana mu buso. Ibihugu byombi byasezereye ingoma ya cyami ndetse bisubirana ubwigenge mu bihe bimwe. Ingaruka za politiki mu gihugu kimwe zagiye zototera n’ikindi. Mu bihe bitandukanye, hari abanyarwanda bagiye kuba mu Burundi, bahunze cyangwa kubera izindi mpamvu, nko kwiga, ndetse hari n’abarundi babaye mu Rwanda bahunze cyangwa baje kuhakorera, kwiga, n’izindi mpamvu. Hari abanyarwanda bashakanye n’abarundi; mu yandi magambo, hari abenegihugu bakomoka ku ruvanye rw’abarundi n’abanyarwanda. Urebye ibi bihugu ni ibivandimwe, ku buryo ababiyobora bakabaye bashyira imbere umubano mwiza kuko ababituye bose babifitemo inyungu.

Poliki mbi yabaye inzitizi y’ubuhahirane mu bucuruzi

Nta murundi wemerewe kugurisha imyaka mu Rwanda. Ni icyemezo cyatangajwe na Visi-perezida wa kabiri w’u Burundi Joseph Butore tariki ya 30 Nyakanga 2016. Uyu mutegetsi yavuze ko ngo batakomeza guhahirana n’igihugu gishaka kubarwanya. I Burundi havaga imbuto nyinshi zirimo imyembe, amacunga, « pommes » n’izindi, zanakoreshwaga mu Rwanda mu gutegura umutobe. Havaga kandi ifu y’imyumbati, amamesa, indagara n’ibindi. Ni igihombo ku bacuruzi, no ku baturage bari bakeneye iyo myaka. Kuva aho umubano uziyemo agatotsi, ubuhahirane na bwo bwasubiye inyuma cyane. Ibintu byinshi, bikaba byarahumiye ku murari mu nzego zinyuranye.

Amakamyo ya PAM (Ishami rya Loni ryita ku biribwa)

Amakamyo ya PAM (Ishami rya Loni ryita ku biribwa)

PAM na yo yabujijwe kwinjiza i Burundi ibiribwa bivuye mu Rwanda

Kuwa 21 Mata 2017, imodoka z’Ishami ry’Umuryango w’abibumbye ryita ku biribwa, PAM, zari zijyanye ibiribwa i Burundi zibivanye mu Rwanda zahejejwe ku mupaka. Nk’uko byatangajwe n’ikinyamakuru « Igihe » cyo mu Rwanda, ngo u Burundi bwanze ko ibigori byinjizwa mu gihugu bitewe n’uko byakuwe mu Rwanda. Iki kinyamakuru cyongeraho ko n’umuvugizi wa PAM, Challiss McDonough, yemeje ko imodoka zari zipakiye ibigori n’ibindi biribwa byari byaguzwe mu Rwanda kugirango bihabwe abarundi ibihumbi bisaga 112 bafite inzara zabujijwe kwinjira mu Burundi. Hagati aho kuri 19 Mata, ikinyamakuru « Ikiriho » cy’i Burundi cyo cyari cyatangaje ko nta gahunda iriho yo kuvana ibiribwa mu Rwanda bijyanwa mu Burundi. Inkuru zivuguruzanya, na zo ubwazo zabaye ikindi kimenyetso cy’ubwumvikane buke, n’umwuka utari mwiza hagati y’ibihugu byombi.

Uretse ibyo bigori byangiwe kwinjira i Burundi bivuye mu Rwanda, hanavugwaga ko hazoherezwayo ibishyimbo bigera ku matoni 500, biguzwe na PAM. Aha, hari n’abibajije mu by’ukuri ukuntu ayo matoni yose yari koherezwa i Burundi, mu gihe mu Rwanda hakiri uduce tukibasiwe n’inzara cyangwa kutihaza mu biribwa. Kuva mu w’2013, abanyarwanda bo duce tunyuranye batatse inzara kandi koko n’itangazamakuru ryo mu Rwanda ryerekanye ko iyo nzara yatumye hari n’abasuhutse bajya gushakira ibibatunga i Bugande. Kuki abategetsi b’u Rwanda batigeze bashishikarira mu kwaka inkunga nk’iriya ya PAM, kugira ngo igoboke abo banayrwanda bashonje?

Ibyo ari byo byose, ikigaragara ni uko u Burundi bwo bwatabarije abantu babwo bashonje. Bwashyikirije ikibazo PAM kuko ni cyo ishinzwe kandi yatangiye kubugoboka. Cyakora u Burundi ntibushaka ibiribwa bivuye mu Rwanda kubera urwikekwe n’umubano mubi hagati y’abategetsi b’ibihugu byombi. Biragaragara ko ibikorwa ku mpande zombi ari agahimano kava ku bategetsi bashyira imbere inyungu zabo bwite. Kurebana nabi kw’abategetsi b’ibi bihugu kwatangiye kujya ahabona muri Mata 2015. Imyaka ibiri irashize.

Icyo abenegihugu bifuza, cyane cyane rubanda rwa giseseka, nta kindi uretse kubona umwuka mwiza ugaruka mu karere, bityo ubishatse akajya mu kindi gihugu ntacyo yikanga, ushatse akahakora ubucuruzi cyangwa ibindi bikorwa nta mpungenge. Ibi birashoboka, mu gihe politiki nziza yasimbuzwa politiki mbi, no kwirinda gushishikazwa n’inyungu zitari iz’abaturage. Byanashoboka ariko, ari uko impande zombi zibigizemo ubushake no gushyira mu gaciro.

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