Rwanda: Ese hari ibimenyetso bigaragaza irangira ry’igitugu (igice cya 2)?

Hagati perezida Kagame, iburyo Bonifasi Rucagu ukoma amashyi ubadahwema, ibumoso Francis Kaboneka Minisitiri w'ubutegetsi bw'igihugu
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21/12/2016, yanditswe na Emmanuel Senga

Nk’uko twari twabihanyeho umugambi ko tuzakomeza gusuzuma ibimenyetso byerekana irangira ry’igitugu mu gihugu, tugiye gukomeza turebera hamwe ibigaragaza iyo ngoma n’ukuntu abantu bafatanya kurandura igitugu ishingiyeho. Abantu benshi bakunda kwibwira ko bidashoboka, ariko kandi niba hari aho igitugu cyagiye kiranduka bigakunda, ni uko nyine bishoboka, igikunze kurambira abantu ni ukutamenya igihe kizarandukira. Baba bifuza ko byaba vuba, ariko bagomba kumenya ko na cyo kiba gifite inshingano zo kwirinda, kigatinda ku butegetsi igihe kirekire gishoboka. Ariko kuba bishoboka byo ni ihame, ikibazo ni ukutamenya uwo murwana. Na ho iyo wamaze kumenya uwo murwana, ushaka nawe intwaro zimushegesha.

Ubusanzwe abashaka kuyobora abantu bagira uburyo bunyuranye bwo kugera ku butegetsi, ariko ku buryo bw’umwihariko muri Afurika, bisa nk’aho kujya ku butegetsi bikurikira igishushanyo (imbata) kimwe.

Mu myaka ya za 1960, muri ya nkubiri y’ubwigenge bw’ibihugu by’Afurika, bimwe byarabuharaniye binyuze mu guhangana mu bitekerezo n’abakoloni, nk’uko byagendegekeye ibihugu byari byarakolonijwe n’abafaransa n’abongereza; ibindi bigomba gukoresha intwaro, nk’uko byagenze mu bihugu by’Afurika y’amajyepfo byari byarakoronijwe n’abanyaporutugali, kimwe n’ibindi bihugu byakekaga ko Afurika ari umugabane bitoraguriye, harimo Angola, Namibiya, Mozambike, Afurika y’epfo n’ibindi. Muri ibi bihugu byose ubutegetsi bwavuye kuri ba gashakabuhake  bushyirwa mu maboko y’abenegihugu. Bamwe babaye nk’ababugabirwa n’abo ba gashakabuhake, ariko ugasanga kenshi na kenshi abaturage babibonamo, kuko basaga nk’aho ari bo bategereje ko babayobora. Iri hererekanya ry’ubutegetsi ryakiriwe ku buryo bunyuranye n’abari bagabiwe ubwo butegetsi, kuko bidatinze abategetsi bashya bitwaye nk’abakoloni, bityo abaturage batangira kwicuza impamvu bavunikiye ubusa.

Mu myaka yakurikiye ubwo bwigenge, ibihugu byari bigitaguza muri iyo ngendo nshya y’undi, kandi muzi ko ivuna. Gusa mu byo abakoloni bari barasigiye ibyo bihugu harimo umuco wo kwitorera abategetsi. Mu mizo ya mbere byagenze neza, kugeza ubwo , kubera  ko ubutegetsi buryoha, abareberaga na bo batangiye kwiyumvamo ubushobozi bwo kuyobora, hatangira amashyaka menshi no guharanira kugera ku butegetsi. Amashyaka amwe yashingiye ku moko, andi ashingira ku kwemera, ariko nibura yabayeho. Muri iyo myaka kandi igisirikari cyashyizwe mu maboko y’abenegihugu na cyo, umukuru w’ingabo aba umwenegihugu, abamwungirije bazamurwa mu mapeti.

Ariko gahoro gahoro abasirikare babonye ko intwaro bafite, n’umubare w’abasirikare bayobora byabashoboza gufata ubutegetsi. Ni muri urwo rwego, guhera muri za 1970 twagiye tubona urukurikirane rw’ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi mu bihugu hafi byose muri Afurika, ku buryo abaperezida benshi bisangaga ari abajenerari cyangwa abakoloneli bakuyemo imyenda ya gisirikari. Izi ngoma za gisirikari ni zo zatangije igitugu kubera ko igisirikari ubwacyo gitegekeshwa igitugu, bakacyita disipiline. Gahoro gahoro rero igitugu cyarafashe, amashyaka arahirikwa, amategeko nshinga asubirwamo, kugira ngo bahe umunyagitugu itegeko rimufasha kurangiza imirimo ye uko abyifuza yikingirije Itegeko nshinga.

Igitugu nk’umuderi w’ubutegetsi

Igitugu cya gisirikari cyari  kimaze gushingwa kitwaje kuyoboresha Itegeko Nshinga ryanditse neza mu nyungu z’abari ku butegetsi. Hagateganywamo ingingo zibafasha kubona indonke, kabone nubwo abandi baturage basigaye byabaga bibabangamiye. Abatinyutse kwerekana ububi bw’iyo migirire barafunzwe, abandi bararigiswa, abandi barapfa bazize  impfu zidasobanutse.

Ariko muri rusange, igitugu gifite itegeko ryihariye kigenderaho, aho ari ho hose, ari ryo gushyira umutungo wose w’igihugu mu maboko y’umunyagitugu hamwe n’abantu bake bamukikije. Iri tegeko rikora hose, akaba ari na yo ntandaro yo gukomeza igitugu uko iminsi igenda ishira. Birumvikana ko abasigaye batagerwaho n’umutungo bakora uko bashoboye ngo ibintu bihinduke, ari na ko abegereye umunyagitugu bakora uko bashoboye na bo ngo ubutegetsi bukomeze bubakamire.

Ntegura iyi nyandiko nifashishije inyandiko nasanze muri google yitwa mu gifaransa
La dictature constitutionnelle en 12 étapes-Agora Vox le media citoyen. Ibiyivugwamo usanga u Rwanda, Perezida Kagame na FPR byose babyujuje. Nitumara kubisangira muzasanga musanzwe mubibona, ariko ikigamijwe cyane ni ukureba uko abantu babyifashisha bagafata ingamba zihamye tumaze kungurana ibitekerezo ku cyakorwa dukurikije ibigezweho n’igitugu gitsikamiye u Rwanda.

Intera igitugu gikoresha kugira ngo kiyoberanye nk’igikoresha amategeko

Ku rwego mpuzamahanga ubu buryo bwo kwikingiriza itegeko nshinga, ubutegetsi bw’igitugu bugakomeza guhonyora abenegihugu, bukoreshwa ku isi hose, kugira ngo abaturage babure aho bagihera bagiturubikana; kandi no mu maso y’abanyamahanga kigakomeza kugaragara ko kigendera kuri demokarasi, kandi ko gikurikiza amategeko. Ni yo mpamvu abamotsi bacyo bose, iyo mugiye impaka ubasobanurira uko abaturage bakandamijwe, bo bakubwira ko Leta yabo ikurikiza amategeko ndetse byaba ngombwa bakayagusomera. Nyamara baba barwana gusigasira intambwe igitugu cyubakiyeho nk’uko zikurikirana.

  1. Igitugu, nk’uko twabivuze kibanza kumenya niba umutungo wose w’igihugu uri mu maboko yacyo. Ni ho uzasanga gishyiraho amasosiyete anyuranye agenzura ubuzima bwose bw’igihugu. Kandi birumvikana , kuko igitugu gihera ahari amafaranga, mu mabanki no mu mishinga, ahasigaye kigashyiramo abantu bacyo bagomba kugikusanyiriza mafaranga.
  2. Kigomba gukoresha ibikoresho byose na serivisi bya Leta ku nyungu zacyo, maze ibyo kivuze byose bigasa nk’aho bishingiye ku itegeko. Ariko iyo ukurikiye usanga amategeko ari urwitwazo, hagakoreshwa amabwiriza y’umunyagitugu;
  3. Kimenya gukoresha itangazamakuru, ku buryo kitarijyamo ari ukugira ngo kibone amafaranga, ahubwo ari ukugira ngo hatagira umwanya wasigara ukaba wafatwa n’abandi. Nta tangazamakuru ryigenga ribangikana n’igitugu, n’iyo ribonetse gikora uko gishoboye kikaryangiza, gisebya abarikoramo n’ibyo batangaza, byacambwa kikarimira;
  4. Gikora ibishoboka byose kikabuza abantu kwegerana ngo batajya inama, bityo kigashyiraho ba maneko bafite mu nshingano zabo kumviriza no gutanya abantu, Mu gitugu igihuza abantu kitabifitemo uruhare ntikiba cyemewe;
  5. Cyumvisha abaturage ko nta kwiteza imbere bishoboka, keretse Leta ibigizemo uruhare, kugira ngo ugire icyo ugeraho ukagomba kwiyomeka kuri Leta;
  6. Gikora ku buryo abaturage bafata imyenda myinshi, ndetse kigasunika Leta na yo igafata imyenda ikabije, kugira ngo kibone amafaranga gikoresha, kivoma mu isanduku ya Leta nta we ukopfoye;
  7. Gikoresha abantu bake, abari basanzwe mu mirimo kikabirukana, bityo bagahinduka abakene kandi bakanagikinguruka kikabona uko kivoma nta we ukomye;
  8. Giteranya abantu, kikabashyiramo umutima wo kuryana, bagahora bahanganye na cyo kigakomeza kikenyegeza ngo kibigarurire cyangwa gikomeze kibatere ubwoba;
  9. Gikoresha uburyo bugayitse bwo kumviriza, haba ibiganiro bivugwa cyangwa byandikwa, kigakurikirana ibisohoka mu binyamakuru, kikumviriza telefoni kikanakurikirana n’imbuga nkoranyambaga, kigira ngo hatagira ugica mu rihumye akakivuga cyangwa akageza ku bandi icyakorwa ngo gihinduke;
  10. Kifashisha uburyo bwose bwo kurangaza, kibinyuza mu binyamakuru no kuri Televiziyo; kigateganya ibitaramo bidafite icyo bivuze, kigatunganya ibitaramo by’ubwoko bwose,  za shampiyona, amanama mpuzamahanga y’abayobozi bakomeye kugira ngo abaturage barangare ntibagire umwanya wo gutekereza ku bibazo byabo; abaperezida bajya mu butumwa buri gihe…ibi byose bigasigira igihugu igihombo gikurikirwa  n’ibyorezo, guta agaciro kw’ifaranga, umutekano muke, inzara z’urudaca, ndetse n’intambara;
  11. Iyo igitugu kigeze mu marembera kitagishobora gutsikamira abaturage bacyo gikoresheje igipolisi, na ba maneko, kitabaza igisirikari. Iyo bigeze kuri iyi ntera kiba kigiye kurunduka;
  12. Kuko iyo bikomeje, kugira ngo kirangaze cyane gitangira kwiyenza ku bihugu by’amahanga no kubitera.

Iyi ncamake  igaragaza igitugu tuyisanga mu bihugu byose bitsindagiwe n’igitugu, na mwe muramutse mwitegereje mwasanga izi ngingo ziboneka no mu Rwanda. Mbagezaho ibi bitekerezo nagira ngo mbasangize amayeri yose abanyagitugu bayobora ibihugu byacu bakoresha bikingiriza amategeko, bakayakoresha igihe ari mu nyungu zabo, ariko bakayashyira ku ruhande iyo bashaka gufunga no kwica abanyagihugu batinyutse kurwanya igitugu cyabo. Turasabwa twese kutagitinya, ahubwo tukagifasha kwirundura. Mwabonye ko intambwe zacyo za nyuma ari ugukaza ubugizi bwa nabi, cyifashisha igipolisi, ba maneko  cyangwa se igisirikari, byaba ngombwa kigatangira gutera ibindi bihugu. Iyo kigeze kuri uru rwego ni ho abenegihugu batangira gutekereza ko kigiye guhirima. Icyo nibutsa gusa ni uko aha ari ho hantu hagwa abantu benshi, mbese ni ho haboneka ibitambo byinshi,  kuko igitugu kiba cyirwanaho ngo kidahirima, n’abenegihugu bakora uko bashoboye ngo bakirundure. Ni ahantu rero ho kwitonderwa. Ikindi ni uko agatsiko kaba kizingiye ku gitugu gikuru gacikamo ibice, bamwe bagatangira guhunga, abandi bakicana kuko baba bagenda batizerana. Mu Rwanda ibihe nk’ibi birimo kugaragara, nta kimenyetso na kimwe cyasizwe inyuma. Ubutaha tuzarebera hamwe ibyakorwa ngo dufashe igitugu kwihirika, kandi birashoboka; ikibazo ni ukwemera ko byagerwaho.

 

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