Rwanda: Ese hari ibimenyetso bigaragaza irangira ry’igitugu? Igice cya nyuma

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25/12/2016, yanditswe na Emmanuel Senga

Iki gice cya gatatu, ari na cyo cya nyuma turagihera kuri ziriya ngingo cumi n’ebyiri twabonye mu gice cya kabiri, hanyuma tugende twerekana uko bishyirwa mu bikorwa mu Rwanda. Ariko  kubera ko duteganya ko iyi nyandiko yaba ndende, twiyemeje kuzayigarukaho tureba ingingo za nyuma zisoza.

Umutungo w’igihugu mu maboko y’umuntu umwe n’ishyaka rimwe

Ku ngingo ya mbere yo gushyira umutungo w’igihugu mu maboko y’igitugu, aha ho ni urucabana, kuko bibonwa na buri wese uri mu Rwanda cyangwa ukurikira ibihabera. Bigaragarira buri wese  ko Sosiyete za FPR, cyangwa za Kagame, ari zo ziharira amasoko yose atangwa mu Rwanda, guhera ku bwubatsi kugera ku gutwara abantu n’ibintu. Impuzamashyirahamwe y’ubucuruzi bwa FPR yitwa Cristal Ventures, ikaba ari yo kompanyi nini mu Rwanda usanga mu buzima bwose bw’igihugu. Ihuza amasosiyete y’ubwubatsi arimo Fair Constructions bita iya Mugisha kandi na we ari umushumba wayo, ikongera igakomatanya amasosiyete y’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi arimo amakaragiro akomeye yo mu gihugu, nk’inyange,  amasosiyete yose ahinga akanacuruza ibyayi n’ikawa by’u Rwanda; amasosiyete y’ubwikorezi bwaba ubwo mu kirere (Rwandair), bwaba ubwo ku butaka no mu Kiyaga cya Kivu n’ibindi.

Amasosiyete y’ubukungu muri Cristal Ventures ya FPR

Iyo witegereje amasosiyete yibumbiye muri Cristal Ventures, ni ho ubona ko ntacyasizwe inyuma ngo ubukungu bujye mu maboko y’igitugu. Kuri iyi ngingo, dore urutonde rw’amasosiyete yose agize Cristal Ventures: Inyange Industries, NPD Ltd, Mutara Enterprise Ltd, Bourbon Coffee, Intersec Security, Ruliba Clays Ltd, REAR Contractors, EA Granite Industries, Capital  Brokers, CVLD, BCI Groups

Ngaho namwe nimumbwire ahandi ubucuruzi bwo mu Rwanda bwamenera budahatswe n’iyi Cristal Ventures? Murabona ko ubuzima bwose bw’igihugu Cristal Ventures yabukubye, ihereye ku mabanki, ku bworozi n’ubuhinzi, ijya yewe no gukusanya umucanga w’igihugu. Ni iki mubona yasize inyuma? Ni hehe umuntu udafite agatuza ahabwa na FPR yahera akora ubucuruzi? Inzira zose zirafunze kuko zashyizwe muri aya masosiyete ya Cristal Ventures.

Umuderi waje wo guhombya amabanki yo mu Rwanda, hanyuma akagurwa n’icyama, na byo ni cyo bigamije. Zaragurishijwe za Banki y’Ubucuruzi, Banki de Kigali, Banki z’Abaturage na zo ziyoborwa n’icyama, COGEBANQUE nyamara yitwa ko ari iy’abikorera ku giti cyabo, cyane cyane ko yari yashyiriweho gutera inkunga abacitse ku icumu rya jenoside, ubu yagurishijwe Banki ya Maroc, ku kagambane ka FPR, ku buryo ahubwo abantu batekereza ko yaguzwe n’icyama cyikingirije igihugu cya Maroc; iyo urebye uko ba nyira yo batungujwe icyemezo cyo kuyishyikiriza Maroc.

Mu rutonde rw’amabanki akorera mu Rwanda, dusangamo n’ayazanywe n’abashoramari bo mu bihugu duturanye nka Uganda na Kenya, ariko amasezerano akorana na Banki Nkuru y’igihugu na yo aba ari mu nyungu z’igitugu. Hasi aha turagaragaza urutonde  rw’amabanki manini yo mu Rwanda n’igihe yashingiwe: muri yo hari ayahozeho ari ay’ubucuruzi cyangwa y’amasosiyete yandi, hakaba n’ayo yavutse vuba; ariko ikizwi ni uko atabaho adahawe umugisha na FPR. Ubu mu Rwanda hari:

Acces Bank                                                        Private    1995

Bank of Kigali                                                   Public     1985

Banque Populaire du Rwanda                       Private  1975

Commercial Bank of Africa Groups              Private 2015

Crane Bank Rwanda                                         Private 2014

Ecobank (Ecobank Transnational Inc)         Public 1985

Equity Bank Rwanda Ltd                                 Public 1985

Guaranty Trust Bank                                         Private 2004

I&M Bank Ltd (former BCR)                           Private  1963

Rwanda Development Bank                            Parastatal  1967

KCB Rwanda Bank Ltd                                     Private  2008

Iyo witegereje urutonde rw’aya mabanki, ukagenzura ba nyirayo usanga hafi ya yose afitwe mu ntoki n’abagize akazu ka FPR, cyangwa ari abashoramari muri yo cyangwa abanyamigabane. Kuba abagize aka gatsiko gatoya bihariye amabanki yose y’igihugu bisobanuye ko ari bo bafite ubukungu bw’igihugu mu ntoki zabo, bibaye ngombwa twatanga n’amazina, ariko turizera ko buri wese yabyigenzurira.

Ntitwirirwa tujya mu masosiyete y’ubwishingizi, ikizwi ni uko yose ari mu maboko y’abakorera icyama, kabone n’iyo yaba yitwa aya Leta, ikibazo ni ukumenya Leta ni nde mu gihe no mu madisikuru asanzwe ba nyir’ubwite bitiranya icyama na Leta?

Inkurikizi z’iyi mikorere ni uko bigaragara ko aho ifaranga ritambiye hose mu gihugu gikennye nka kuriya, rihita rigwa mu maboko y’agatsiko. Ibi bisobanura ko abasigaye bose batari muri ako gatsiko batagira uruhare ku mizamukire y’igihugu. Birumvikana kuko ntibashobora gutekereza imishinga kubera kutabona inguzanyo, ntibafite akazi gahemba neza, bityo ntibanashobore kwigisha abana babo. Bisobanuye ko bazahera mu bukene ubuziraherezo. Ndetse na ya mizamukire y’ibyerekezo bya 2020, 2034, 2050 ntibareba.

Kubangikanya, kwitiranya no kuvangavanga inyungu z’igihugu n’iz’umutegetsi

Ku ngingo ya kabiri yo mu gice cya kabiri, nta tandukanyirizo riri hagati ya Leta na FPR ku buryo serivisi zitangwa cyangwa ibikoresho bikoreshwa ku mpande zombi nta tandukaniro bigira. Iyo bimeze gutya umuyobozi wa FPR, ari na we Umukuru w’igihugu, iyo akomatanyije serivisi zimukorera, uyoberwa igihe  zimukorera nk’umuyobozi wa FPR, n’igihe zimukorera nk’umukuru w’igihugu. Urugero rutari kure ni indege imutwara. Ni indege ya Kagame ku giti cye, noneho Leta ikayikodesha ngo imutware! Iyikodesha iyivanye iyo ibikwa i Burayi! Iyo perezida Kagame agiye mu ngendo ze z’urudaca, indege igihugu gikennye nk’u Rwanda kigomba gukora ibishoboka byose ngo kiyitumize mu Bugereki, kirihe iminsi izamara ku bibuga by’aho Perezida aba yagiye, amavuta ikoresha no kuyikorera serivisi ivuye mu ngendo. Niba iyo ndege idakora mu ndonke z’umunyagitugu, kuki umugenzuzi w’imari ya Leta atarabukwa icyo gihombo, kandi gihora kiyongera ngo hashakwe ubundi buryo bwo gutwara Perezida? Mu bindi bihugu bishyira mu gaciro iyo bigaragaye ko ingendo za Perezida zihenda igihugu, ziragabanywa cyangwa hagashakwa uburyo Perezida yakoresha indege z’amakompanyi atwara abantu. Ni iki gikomeye kumva muri ibi ko harimo amanyanga. Biragaragara ko iyo ndege ikoreshwa gutyo ari iy’umunyagitugu, uyishakira isoko atitaye ku bukene bw’igihugu. Ibi mu bihugu bifite demokarasi byitwa kubangikanya inyungu ( conflit d’intérêts).

Mu bihugu bindi nka Kenya, hari inteko yatowe n’abaturage, abadepite babujije Perezida kujyana n’abantu benshi bamuherekeje, kuko bihombya igihugu kandi nta nyungu igaragara bikizanira. Mu Rwanda, usibye no kubaza bene ibi bibazo ntibanatinyuka no kwamagana ingendo Perezida Kagame ahoramo zitagize icyo zimarira igihugu. Yabumvishije ko ngo aba agiye guhaha. Ni nde watubwira icyo urugendo rwa Perezida Kagame muri Yale University muri Amerika, rwahahiye u Rwanda n’umuturage usanzwe? Kandi ingendo nk’izi ntawavuga umubare wazo, kuko ari nyinshi cyane. Ndemeza ko hatari igitugu cyumvisha abantu ko ari ngombwa, bene izi ngendo ziba zarateye abadepite gutumiza Perezida wa Repubulika ngo yisobanure. Ariko mu Rwanda, ruyobowe n’igitugu ntibishoboka. Dufite inyigo irambuye yerekana amafaranga indege Kagame agendamo zihombya igihugu, udashyizemo ayaziguze kandi atagaragara mu mutungo wa Leta. Tuzagira igihe cyo kubigarukaho mu minsi itaha.

Gukoma imbere uwashyira ahabona imikorere mibi y’abategetsi bakuru

Ndagira ngo nsubikire iki gice nise icya nyuma ku mikoreshereze y’itangazamakuru, aho dusanga Leta irema ibitangazamakuru byinshi biyivuga imyato, ikigiza ku ruhande uwatinyuka kunenga ibyo ikora, abanyamakuru bakabaye bigenga bagafungwa, abandi bagahunga; ibinyamakuru byabo bikimwa amafaranga yo kwamamaza kugira ngo bifunge imiryango, abarambiwe bagahagarika itangazamakuru cyangwa se bakishyira mu kwaha kwa Leta. Mu Rwanda ingero z’iyi mikorere ni nyinshi iyo dutekereje umubare w’ibinyamakuru waciwe mu Rwanda nk’Umuseso, Umuvugizi,  BBC Gahuzamiryango yafunzwe muri FM, n’ibindi,  kimwe n’umubare munini w’abanyamakuru babikoragamo ubu babarizwa mu buhungiro ku bagize Imana, kuko abandi bishwe (nka Jean Léonard Rugambage, Charles Ingabire, Emmanuel Munyemanzi, …), abagiye bashyirwa mu munyururu, abashyizweho iterabwoba, inkurikizi ikaba iyo kutongera gutinyuka ubwisanzure nyabwo.

Kubera uburemere bw’izi ngingo n’uburebure byagira ku mwandiko umwe, twiyemeje kuzabagezaho ubutaha igice gisoza cy’iki gice cya nyuma, ari na ho tuzagaragaza uburyo bwageragezwa ngo ubutegetsi bubi buveho busimburwe n’ubwiza, cyane cyane ko mu karere ubu hari ibyangombwa byose, bishobora gufasha kwikiza iki gitugu. Muri byo twavuga amatora arimbanyije mu mwaka tugiye gutangira cyane cyane mu Rwanda, aho ingengabihe yayo imaze gutangazwa.

Tukaba rero twasoza tubararikira igice cya nyuma gisoza tuzasuzumiramo ingingo n’ingero zazo ku byerekeye gutandukanya abantu ngo batungurana inama, kudashobora kwiteza imbere udateze amaboko Leta, guhatira abaturage na Leta gufata imyenda ikabije, guteranya abantu no kubabuza ubwisanzure mu itumanaho, kimwe no kubashora mu kaduruvayo k’intambara n’imidugararo mbere yo kugaba ibitero ku baturanyi.

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