Repubulika za bamwe ntacyo zirusha ubwami

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Hashize imyaka irenga 50 henshi muri Afurika habaye impinduka zikomeye zashyizeho Repubulika zisezerera ingoma ya cyami. No mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari, iyo nkubiri yarahanyuze.

Nyamara Repubulika imaze kujyaho bamwe mu baperezida batatiye amahame yayo. Repubulika yakabaye irangwa n’ubuyobozi bwita ku mibereho myiza y’abaturage. Repubulika yakaranzwe no guharanira gucunga neza iby’igihugu, buri muturage wese akagira uburenganzira ku byiza by’igihugu cye, kandi uwo muturage akaba ari nawe ugena bamwe mu bayobora bakanacunga ibya rusange, ndetse akaba yagira n’ijambo igihe abo yishyiriyeho bateshutse ku nshingano bashinzwe. Repubulika yakabaye nk’umubyeyi wita ku bana be bose, agashishikarira ko bose bamererwa neza. Repubulika ntiyakabaye isumbanisha abenegihugu. Nyamara se, ntihari ibihugu bimwe byahisemo kugendera kuri repubulika, bikaba birangwamo ubusumbane n’akarengane mu benegihugu?

Repubulika ni ijambo rikomoka ku rurimi rw’ikiratini: res publica=la chose publique; ibya rubanda; ibya rusange. Ni ukuvuga ko, ugiriwe icyizere n’abaturage, bakamutora ngo abayobore, aba agomba gucunga iby’igihugu mu izina ry’abamutoye, bityo akabicunga mu nyungu zabo.

Repubulika iberaho ko buri wese yagira imibereho iboneye, ikanarangwa n’uko nta muntu kamara ubaho, ko kandi nta muntu ugomba kujya ejuru aho yica agakiza uwo ashaka. Umukuru w’igihugu muri Repubulika, aratorwa. Abaturage bahitamo uwo bashaka. Iyo acyuye igihe, abaturage bamusimbuza uwo babona yayobora neza igihugu.

Utorewe kuyobora igihugu, aba aniyemeje kubahiriza Repubulika n’abenegihugu. Ku ngoma ya cyami, aho umuntu yayoboraga uko abyumva, birumvikana ko imibereho n’inyungu za rubanda bitashyirwaga imbere y’ibindi. Nyuma y’ubwami, abaperezida bagiyeho, bakarenga kuri ya mahame ya Repubulika, barayitatiye ndetse batatira n’abanyarwanda. Warenga kuri aya mahame ukavuga ko ubwami wabuvaniyeho iki? Ndavuga bwa bwami butwara byose, bukagenga byose, bukagaba, bukanyaga, bukagabirwa uwitwa ko “yavukanye imbuto” (monarchie absolu).

Mu by’ukuri, hariho ubundi bwami butabereyeho gutegeka, guhaka, kugena, ahubwo nk’ikimenyetso cy’ubumwe, kurebera rubanda iyo bibaye ngombwa, no kugira inama mu byemezo bidasanzwe ku gihugu. Aha umuntu yatanga urugero r’ubwami bushingiye ku ntekonshingamategeko (monarchie parlementaire).

Ku isi hari ibihugu bifite Repubulika ariko biyitatira ku buryo bukabije. Aho, ni ho usanga ubutegetsi bw’igitugu, igisuti, gukanda no kwigiriza nkana ku baturage (dictature, autoritarisme et totalitarisme). Muri Afurika ni henshi usanga abaturage bataka kubera akarengane. Ufunzwe cyangwa akicwa biturutse ku banyabubasha bo hejuru mu butegetsi, bifatwa nk’ibisanzwe cyangwa nk’ibyemewe kandi nyamara amategeko yanditse ateganya ko ubikoze ahanwa. Inyerezwa ry’umutungo w’igihugu rikozwe n’abanyabubasha mu butegetsi, ntirikurikiranwa. Mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari ntawarubara. Ari Kongo, Uganda, Urwanda, Uburundi, hose ubutegetsi ntiburazwa ishinga n’akababaro k’abaturage, ntibushyira inyungu z’abenegihugu imbere y’ibindi byose. Uzasanga hari abaperezida ngo bafite imitungo n’agahiga k’amafaranga nk’ibya Mirenge ku Ntenyo. Bishoboka bite gutunga ibiyegayega iby’igihugu kandi hari abaturage baburara cyangwa barya rimwe ku munsi na bwo bigoranye? Aha, ni ho usanga n’igihe hateye inzara, hari abategetsi bakina ku mubyimba abaturage, bahakana ko ntayihari, aho kubagoboka mu bihe nk’ibyo bikomeye.

Muri Repubulika, ubuzima, uburenganzira bwa muntu bwakabumbatiwe by’umwihariko. Koko kubona mu bihugu nk’ibyo, umuntu w’inzirakarengane yicwa n’abakamuhaye umutekano? Umuryango we waregera nde? Urege he? Urega se uwo uregera?

Nyamara ariko gukosora ibyagoramye birashoboka. Ba nyirubwite babasha ubwabo kwikubita agashyi. Iyo batabishoboye, rubanda ishobora kubagamburuza, kuko abaturage bafite ijambo ku gihugu cyabo, kandi n’ubutegetsi si ubukonde, ahubwo ni ubw’abenegihugu. Muri biriya bihugu,birashoboka guhindura ibintu bikajya mu buryo bwiza.

Abategetsi bo mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari, bakwiye kurinda ko abaturage bakomeza kuzunga muzunga, basiragira, bakabarinda kubaho batariho, abandi bababuza amajyo n’amerekezo.

Ikizamini kiri imbere y’abategetsi mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari ku munsi wa none, hari uwavuga ko kugikemura bitoroshye. Nyamara, birinze kugundira ubutegetsi no kubwititanya n’ibyabo, bakirinda gukurura bishyira, bagashyira imbere uburinganire n’isaranganya, ibyo ni byo byagaragza koko gukunda igihugu, gukunda abanyagihugu aho kwikunda kurengeje urugero. None se, si na byo baba bararahiriye?

Jean Claude Mulindahabi

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