« Leta ya Kagame yaba izi ibyo ivuga n’ibyo isaba Kiliziya ? » Prof Charles Kambanda

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18/12/2016 Isesengura ry’umunyamategeko Prof. Charles Kambanda

Ngo Papa (Vatican) nasabe imbabazi ku cyaha cya jenoside kubera ko yasabye imbabazi kw’ihohoterwa ry‘abana ryakozwe na bamwe mu bapadiri!

1. Sinshaka kujya mu kibazo  « Kiliziya Gatulika ni iki » cyangwa, « Kiliziya Gatulika iba he »? Ubishaka yajya kureba ibisobanuro birambuye mu nyandiko (Documents) z’inama nkuru ya Vatikani ya kabiri (Vatican II Council), cyane cyane inyandiko yiswe mu rurimi rw’igifransa « constitution dogmatique  »Lumen gentium »». Ni ngombwa gusobanukirwa icyo Kiliziya Gatulika iricyo mbere yuko tuvuga ibindi kuri iyi subject.

2. Kugirango ubuyobozi bwa Kiliziya Gatulika busabe imbabazi ku cyaha cyakozwe n’umupadiri, uwihayimana cyangwa umukirisitu usanzwe, ubuyobozi bwa Kiliziya Gatulika bwagombye kuba bwaragize uruhare mu cyaha kivugwa. Urwo ruhare rushobora kuba mu buryo bwa vicarious liability cyangwa se mu buryo bw‘ubufatanyacyaha ( criminal liability).

3. Ese, umukoresha ( Kiliziya Gatulika) ashobara kuryozwa ( vicarious liability/responsabilité indirecte) ibyaha – bihanwa n’amategeko mpanabyaha by’umukozi; ibyaha umukozi yakoze ari mu kazi k’umukoresha?

Ubundi kirazira ko umukoresha abazwa ibyaha by’umukozi we. Ariko, hari situations eshatu ( exceptions) iyo imwe muri izo exceptions ibaye, umukoresha aryozwa ibyaha by’umukozi we ( vicarious liability). Kugirango umukoresha abazwe ibyaha bihanwa n‘amategeko mpanabyaha umukozi yakoze, kimwe mubikurikira kigomba kuba cyarabaye:
(a) Umukoresha ( Kiliziya Gatulika)agomba kuba yategetse umukozi we ( padiri) gukora icyaha aregwa, CYANGWA

(b) Ibikorwa bigize icyaha umukozi ( padiri) aregwa n’ibyo bikorwa bigize akazi umukozi (padiri) yahawe gukora.
CYANGWA

(c) Umukozi (padiri) yakoze biriya byaha hagamijwe ko umukoresha (Kiliziya Gatulika) abona inyungu. Kandi izo nyungu zigomba kuba zihura n’inyungu umukoresha yashakaga kubona igihe yahaga umukozi we (padiri) akazi yakoreyeho icyaha. Ibyo bikorwa ( ibyaha) umukozi (padiri) yakoze bigomba kuba bifitanye isano n‘akazi umukoresha ( Kiliziya Gatulika) yahaye umukozi gukora.

Birumvikana ko ku cyaha cya jenoside bivugwa ko abapadiri bamwe bakoze, nta exception n‘imwe yatuma umukoresha ( diyoseze ) wa bariya bapadiri yabazwa kiriya cyaha gihanwa n’amategeko mpanabyaha y’u Rwanda.
Ku rundi ruhande ariko, abapadiri bakoze child abuse ku bana muri Amerika n‘ahandi, bo ibyaha bifitanye isano n’akazi bari bashinzwe gukora. Akazi ka padiri karimo counseling, gusiga amavuta matagatifu ku bantu, guha abantu amazi y’umugisha, gutanga penetensiya, etc. Ibyo byose bikorwa mu mwiherero, mu buryo bw‘ibanga. Iyo niyo environment biriya byaha by’urukoza isoni ku bana byakorewemo. Kandi, Kilziya Gatulika ifite inyungu ko abantu bagana abapadiri mu mwiherero , mu ibanga ngo babone amasakaramentu. Ni ukuvuga ko hagati ya bariya bana na diyoseze, hariho fiduciary relationship. Kandi bariya bapadiri (abakozi ba diyoseze) bakoresheje position yabo kubona advantages – kandi ku bana bato – bityo diyoseze ikaba itarakoze akazi kayo ka supervision yaba padiri bashinze abana bato kandi hari fiduciary relationship hagati y‘abana na diyoseze.

Kuvuga ngo abantu bishwe bahungiye kuri paruwasi/kwa padiri bityo Kiliziya Gatulika ikabibazwa, ntabwo bihagije. Kwa padiri ntabwo ari ikigo gishinzwe gucumbikira abantu kandi kwa padiri ntabwo hafite ibyangombwa bisabwa abantu bacumbikira abandi, harimo no gucungirwa umutekano. Akazi ka padiri nta nshingano zo gucumbikira abantu zirimo n’ubwo yaba ari mukaga yahahungira bitewe nuko yumva ko byamufasha. Nubwo umuntu uhunga akaga akariko kose atakumirwa kwinjira ahantu akeka ko hatekanye, uwakira umuntu uhunga akaga atagomba gusabwa gukora ibitangaza cyangwa gukora ibintu bidasanzwe.

Kubera izi mpamvu mvuze haruguru, kuvuga ngo Papa asabe imbabazi kuri jenoside kubera ko yazisabye ku bana bafashwe, ni ukuvanga amasaka n’amasakaramentu. Nta kuntu umuntu yasaba imbabazi ku cyaha atagizemo uruhare ku buryo bwa vicarious liability cyangwa criminal liability.

4. Ese, Kiliziya Gatulika yaba iregwa ubufatanyacyaha naba padiri bivugwa ko bakoze jenoside cyangwa se, Kiliziya Gatulika hari uburyo yagaragaye mu bwicanyi?

Ubundi, iyo bigaragaye ko umuntu yafashije undi gukora icyaha gihanwa n’amategeko mpanabyaha, ( aiding and abetting or accessory), uyu muntu ahanwa nkaho we ubwe yakoze icyo cyaha uregwa yakoze bityo akaba yabihanirwa akanabiryozwa.

Kugirango umuntu ahamwe n’icyaha kitwa aiding and abetting ibyaha by’undi muntu, hagombye kuboneka ibimenyetso by’ibintu bikurikira:
(a) ko icyaha kivugwa koko cyakozwe
(b) uregwa gufasha uwakoze icyaha muby’ukuri yatanze itegeko ko icyaha gikorwa, yasabye ko icyaha gikorwa
(c)uregwa gufasha uwakoze icyaha yagombye kuba yarafashije uregwa gukora icyaha abigambiriye kandi ashaka ko icyaha koko gikorwa.
Kandi,
(d) uregwa ubufatanyacyaha yakoze (b) na (c) mbere y’uko icyo cyaha gikorwa/kiba.

Iyo umuntu aregwa ubufatanyacyaha ( accessory), uwafashije mu cyaha arabihanirwa akaba yanatanga indishyi y‘akababaro. Kugirango ibi bibe, hagombye kugaragazwa ibimenyetso simusiga ko:
(a) umufatanyacyaha yari azi neza, adashidikanya ko, umuntu yafashaga yakoze icyo cyaha, kandi
(b) uwafashije yabikoze agambiriye kubuza ko uwakoze icyaha afatwa ngo ahanwe uko biteganywa n’amategeko.

Birumvikana ko Kiliziya Gatulika itafashije umuntu uwariwe wese mu cyaha kiswe jenoside yabaye mbere y‘uko kiriya cyaha gikorwa ( aiding and abetting) cyangwa nyuma yicyaha (accessory).

Imanza z‘abapadri bakoze ibyaha bya child abuse, facts zabo ziratandukanye. Abayobozi ba bariya bapadiri bahamwe no gufasha abapadiri mu cyaha nyuma y’icyo cyaha ( accessory). Gute? Muri cases zose, diyioseze zamenyaga ko abapadri bahohoteraga bariya bana. Akenshi, ubuyobozi bwa diyoseze icyo bwakoze ni uguhindurira bariya bapadiri bakabashyira ahandi cyangwa ubuyobozi bwa diyoseze bukavugana n’imiryango y’abo bana hagamijwe ko babikira ibanga abo bapadiri. Ni ukuvuga ko diyoseze/Kiliziya Gatulika yagize uruhare muri biriya byaha by’ihohotera rya bariya bana. Kuba Papa yarasabye imbabazi kuri biriya byaha byo birumvikana.

Mu kwanzura:

Nta theory n‘imwe izwi mu mategeko ( mpanabyaha cyangwa mbonezamubano), ethics, morality cyangwa criminal justice yashingirwaho kubwira Kiliziya Gatulika gusaba imbabazi ku cyaha cya jenoside. Kuba Papa yarasabye imbabazi ku byaha byakozwe na bamwe mu bapadiri ku bana muri Amerika n’u Burayi, ntaho bihuriye na case ya « jenoside » ivugwa mu Rwanda. Nanone, Leta ya Kagame iravanga amasaka n’amasakaramentu.

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