Itorwa ry’undi muperezida w’Ubufaransa hari icyo ryahindura ku mubano n’u Rwanda?

François Fillon (ibumoso) ashobora kugera ku mwanya w'ikirenga, Alain Juppé (iburyo) yiyemeje guhatana kugeza ku munota wa nyuma, hagati ni ishusho itwibutsa ko hakiri n'abandi bahatanira kuba perezida
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N’ubwo umutwe w’iyi nyandiko ugizwe na kiriya kibazo, ariko n’uwashaka yabaza n’ukundi ati: « itorwa ry’undi muperezida w’u Rwanda ryatuma umubano w’ibihugu byombi wongera kuba mwiza? » Turibanda ku mutwe w’inyandiko tutirengagije n’iki kibazo cya kabiri, ariko cyo tuzakigarukaho vuba aha ku buryo burambuye. Ibihugu byombi bizatora perezida wa repubulika umwaka utaha. Imyaka ishize ari 22, ibi bihugu bitarabasha kuganira mu kuri ngo birebe uko byakemura ibyo bitumvikanaho ku ntambara na jenoside byo mu Rwanda. Ni abahe bategetsi bazagira ubutwari bwo kuvuguta umuti nyawo? Ubu koko abantu bemere ko umuti nyawo ari ugucana ubucuti burundu nk’uko bamwe babivugisha amatama yombi?

Uwabeshya ni uwavuga ko abanyarwanda batitaye na gato ku matora ya perezida w’Ubufaransa muri iki gihe akiri mu rwego rw’amajonjora, akaba ari gukorwa mu mashyaka, agomba kugena abazayahagararira, muri Gicurasi 2017. Mu bitwa aba « Les Républicains » n’abo mu gice kitwa « Centre » batangiye ijonjora kuwa 20 Ugushyingo 2016. Iryo tora rirangira rigaragaje ko François Fillon na Alain Juppé ari bo bazarushanwa mu ijonjora rya nyuma muri ziriya mpande. Nicolas Sarkozy yaratsinzwe ndetse ahita atangaza ko asezeye muri politiki. Uyu mugabo wigeze kuba perezida, yari yaragerageje kuzanzamura umubano, ariko nyuma bisubira irudubi. Abo mu gice cy’abari ku butegetsi, na bo bari hafi gutoranya uzabahagararira. Muri abo bose, ni nde wagira icyo ahindura ku mubano mubi n’u Rwanda?

Kuva mu w’1994 umubano w’u Rwanda n’Ubufaransa waracumbagiye. Nyuma yo gutsinda urugamba no gufata ubutegetsi muri Nyakanga 1994, abategetsi b’u Rwanda bumvaga ko abafaransa bagombaga kujya ku mavi bagasaba imbabazi kuko ubu butegetsi bubafata nk’abafanyacyaha n’abakoze jenoside. Abafaransa bo bagahakana ko nta bwicanyi bakoze, bakavuga ko batazizwa ubutwererane bwari busanzwe hagati y’ibihugu byombi. Abategetsi b’u Rwanda bakongeraho ko Ubufaransa bwatoje abasirikare n’interahamwe.  Ku bijyanye n’igikorwa cyiswe « Opération Turquoise » (aho abafaransa baje mu Rwanda babyemerewe n’Umuryango w’abibumbye, LONI, ingabo z’abafaransa zinjiye mu Rwanda, jenoside igeze hagati bavuga ko baje mu gikorwa cyo gutabara abaturage), abategetsi b’u Rwanda bavuga ko cyari kigamije gukingira ikibaba abicanyi, nyamara abafaransa bo bemeza ko ahubwo hari n’abo mu bwoko bw’abatutsi benshi barokoye. Hari abavuga ko « Opération Turquoise » yarokoye abatutsi bari hagati y’ibihumbi 15 na 20 (15000-20000, muri iyi nyandiko mwareba ahagana ku rupapuro rw’1174) mu burengerazuba bw’amajyepfo y’u Rwanda. Cyakora hari n’abemeza ko abafaransa bagize uburangare bukomeye kuko abanyabisesero bishwe iyi « Opération » yarageze mu Rwanda.

Witegereje neza usanga, hagati y’ibi bihugu, ibintu byarabaye urudaca. Umubano wagiye unyuzamo ukaba akazuyaze, cyangwa bakabana bya nyirarureshwa. Muri iyi minsi ho, byahumiye ku mirari, kuko abategetsi b’i Kigali ntibazuyaza kuvuga ko nta n’icyo uwo mubano ukimaze. Intandaro y’imibanire idashyitse iterwa n’uko abategetsi b’u Rwanda bashinja Ubufaransa kugira uruhare mu « gutegura » no gushyira mu bikorwa jenoside yakorewe abatutsi, ariko by’umwihariko ikibashengura ni uko ubutabera bw’Ubufaransa bugikomeje iperereza kuri nyirabayazana w’igikorwa cy’iterabwoba cy’ihanurwa ry’indege yahitanye perezida Yuvenali Habyarimana n’abo bari kumwe, mu gihe mu « Rugwiro » bibwiraga ko dosiye igiye guzikwa (guhagarikwa) burundu. Aha ngaha, perezida Paul Kagame akaba atewe impungenge no kuba yakongera gushinjwa. LONI ivuga ko iryo raswa ry’indege ari yo mbarutso ya jenoside, ku buryo uwo icyo cyaha kizafata, azahamwa n’icyaha gikomeye.

Mu w’2006, nyuma y’imyaka 8 yamaze akora iperereza, umujuji w’umufaransa Jean Louis Bruguière yatanze impapuro zo gufata abantu 9 ba hafi ya perezida Kagame abashinja gufatanya na we muri iryo raswa ry’indege. Abategetsi b’u Rwanda bararakaye, bahambiriza shishi itabona uwari ahagarariye Ubufaransa mu Rwanda, umubano urahagarara mu gihe cy’imyaka hafi ine. Mu w’2010 perezida Sarkozy yasuye u Rwanda, yemera ko hari ibyemezo by’igihugu cye bititondewe ariko ko nta mugambi mubisha wari ubyihishe inyuma. N’ubwo atasabye imbabazi zari zitegerejwe, cyakora umubano usa n’usubukuwe, ambasade i Kigali irongera irakora.

Nicolas Sarkozy yari yagerageje kubyutsa umubano. Hano yari kumwe na Paul Kagame mu Rwanda mu w'2010

Nicolas Sarkozy yari yagerageje kubyutsa umubano. Hano yari kumwe na Paul Kagame mu Rwanda mu w’2010

Nyuma, Ubufaransa bugena abajuji Marc Trévidic na Nathalie Poux gukora irindi perereza ricukumbuye ndetse bajya mu Rwanda. Aba bajuji bitabaje impuguke mu buhanga bushingiye kumenya aho ibisasu bya « missiles » byaba byararasiwe. Yaje gutanga raporo ko byarasiwe mu kigo cya gisirikare cy’i Kanombe. Iyi mpuguke yemeje ibyo, nyamara itigeze igera mu Rwanda. Iby’iyi mpuguke byaje bigusha mu ntero imwe na raporo yakozwe na Jean Mutsinzi wemeje ko indege yahanuwe n’intagondwa zari mu butegetsi bwa Habyarimana. Aho ibintu bibera na none urujijo, ni uko Marc Trévidic yarinze acyura igihe adakoze umwanzuro ntakuka kuri iyi dosiye. Ejo bundi, jenerali Kayumba Nyamwasa yatangaje ko ashaka gutanga ubuhamya bw’ukuntu jenerali Paul Kagame ari we watanze amabwiriza y’iraswa ry’indege. Ubufaransa bwahise buvuga ko bwongeye gukomeza iperereza kuko uwo mutangabuhamya adasanzwe. Abajuji Jean-Marc Herbaut na Nathalie Poux ni bo bagomba kumva uyu mutangabuhamya. Jenerali Kayumba Nyamwasa, ni we wari umukuru w’urwego rw’ubutasi muri FPR igihe indege yaraswaga. Perezida Kagame byongeye kumurakaza ndetse avuga ko nk’uko byagenze mbere bashobora kongera gucana umubano.

Kuva mu w’1994, Ubufaransa bumaze kuyoborwa n’abaperezida bane ndetse buritegura gutora undi mushya niba atabaye François Hollande ufite uburenganzira bwo kongera kwiyamamaza indi nshuro imwe. Ese itorwa ry’undi muperezida w’Ubufaransa hari icyo ryahindura kuri uwo mubano?

François Hollande na Paul Kagame bahuriye i Buruseli mu nama y'Ubumwe bw'Uburayi n'Afurika mu w'2015

François Hollande na Paul Kagame bahuriye i Buruseli mu nama y’Ubumwe bw’Uburayi n’Afurika mu w’2015

Mu gihugu cy’Ubufaransa hari impande ebyiri zikomeye muri politiki (Gauche/Droite). Izi ni zo zikunze gusimburana ku butegetsi binyuze mu matora. Mu gihe cya jenoside yo mu Rwanda, ubutegetsi bwo mu Bufaransa bwari buhuriwemo na ziriya mpande zombi (icyo bita « cohabitation » mu rurimi rw’igifaransa). Perezida yari François Mitterrand wo mu gice cya « Gauche » na ho Minisitiri w’intebe yari Edouard Balladur wo gice cya « Droite ». Alain Juppé uri mu bahatanira kuba perezida, icyo gihe yari minisitiri w’ububanyi n’amahanga n’ubutwererane. Ari mu bo abategetsi b’u Rwanda bakemanga. Kuba ubutegetsi bwari busangiwe, bituma abategetsi b’Ubufaransa b’izi mpande zombi bumva ko ibyemezo byose byafashwe muri iriya myaka bari bahuriye mu butegetsi, buri wese yari yabisinyiye. Akaba ari na yo mpamvu bose bumva bari ku murongo umwe ku kibazo cy’u Rwanda. Hafi ya bose mu bahatanira umwanya wa perezida, mu gihe cya jenoside bari mu myanya yo hejuru muri politiki. Ikindi ni uko, bitoroshye ko abafaransa bajya ku mavi ngo bemere ibyo bakoze n’ibyo batakoze nk’uko byifujwe n’abategetsi b’u Rwanda. Hagakubitiraho rero n’icyifuzo cyo kureka burundu ririya perereza. Ibi se, igihugu gifite ubutabera bwigenga cyabyemera?

Kuki Ubufaransa bwatabaye bwonyine muri jenoside?

Jenoside itangira, Ubufaransa bwasabye LONI ko ibihugu bifite ubushobozi (Amerika, Ubwongereza, Ubufaransa, …) bafatanya bakajya mu Rwanda guhagarika ubwicanyi. Uretse Ubufaransa bwonyine, ibindi bihugu byatereye agati mu ryinyo. Nyuma y’amananiza, Ubufaransa buhabwa uruhushya ibintu bigeze kure. Kuki ibindi bihugu byanze kujyana n’Ubufaransa gutabara inzirakarengane mu Rwanda? Ese impande zari zishyamiranye mu ntambara mu Rwanda mu gihe cya jenoside, zombi zemeraga ko ayo mahanga yaza guhagarika ubwo bwicanyi?

Mu nyandiko ye yasohotse ku itariki ya 14 Mata 2016, umunyamakuru Isidore Ismaïl Mbonigaba ashyira ku karubanda inyandiko zakozwe n’abari bahagarariye FPR Inkotanyi babwira LONI ko badashaka ko ingabo z’amahanga zijya mu Rwanda, nyamara icyo gihe inzirakarengane zari zabuze gitabara. Uyu munyamakuru yongeraho ko yanditswe tariki ya 30 Mata 1994.

Dore igice cy’iyo nyandiko gitera benshi kwibaza:

fpr

Mbonigaba ayihindura mu gifaransa atya:

« {Compte tenu de ce qui précède, le Front patriotique rwandais [FPR] demande au Conseil de Sécurité des Nations Unies de ne pas autoriser le déploiement de la force proposée puisque l’intervention de l’ONU à ce stade n’est d’aucune utilité en ce qui concerne l’arrêt des massacres.} » Le 30 avril 1994

Mushobora gusoma inkuru yose yanditswe na Mbonigaba, murakanda hano >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Tugarutse ku gihugu cy’Ubufaransa, ubushakashatsi budafite aho bubogamiye, ni bwo bushobora kugaragaza uruhare rubi, iki gihugu cyagize muri jenoside yakorewe abatutsi. Iperereza nyakuri ni ngombwa. Ibyaha abategetsi b’u Rwanda barushinja bifite uburemere rukomeye. Niba birimo ukuri, biratangaje ko bimara imyaka irenga 22 nta kirego mu nkiko. Kuki? Abafaransa bo, bitabaje inzego zibishinzwe ngo hagaragare nyirabayazana w’iraswa ry’indege. Ibi byatangiye mu w’1998.

Si abafaransa bonyine barikozeho iperereza. Hari Michaël Hourigan (impuguke mu mategeko yo mu gihugu cya Ostraliya) wari ushinzwe iperereza muri TPIR (Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda), rwa Rukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha ku Rwanda, rwafunze umwaka ushize. Michaël Hourigan yakoze raporo yashyiraga mu majwi ingabo zari ziyobowe na Paul Kagame. N’ubwo uru rukiko rwari rufite ububasha n’inshingano zo gukurikirana n’abagize uruhare muri icyo gikorwa cy’iterabwoba, Amerika yari iyobowe na Georges W Bush yakomye imbere ubutabera kuri icyo gikorwa nk’uko byemejwe n’umusuwisikazi Carla Del Ponte wigeze kuba umushinjacyaha mukuru wa TPIR (1999-2003). Ubuhamya bwa Carla Del Ponte murabusanga ku mpera z’iyi nyandiko.

Abakurikiranira hafi iki kibazo cy’ibi bihugu, basanga bitoroshye ko cyakemuka kuri iyi ngoma. Aba bashimangira ko ingingo abantu bashyira mu gaciro bakwiye kunguranaho ibitekekerezo, ari ukureba niba inyungu z’igihugu zidakwiye gushyirwa imbere kurusha iz’abantu ku giti cyabo. Ari abategetsi b’Ubufaransa ari n’abategetsi b’u Rwanda, bakwiye kuzirikana ko umubano w’ibihugu byombi ufitiye akamaro ababikomokamo bose muri rusange, bityo ntihagire umutegetsi uwubangamira kubera inyungu ze bwite cyangwa iz’ibyegera bye. Kugeza ubu abantu baracyari mu rujijo k’uwagize uruhare mu iraswa ry’iriya ndege. Ubucamanza bwigenga ni bwo bwonyine bushobora gutanga ubutabera. Icyo cyaha kimwe n’ibindi byaha birimo na jenoside byakozwe n’abantu ku giti cyabo, ntibyari bikwiye kuba intandaro yo kubuza imigenderanire, ubuhahirane n’umubano w’abanyagihugu ku mpande zombi. Ahasigaye ikibazo abategetsi batifitemo ubutwari bw’umuti nyawo, bakwiye gusubiza ni ukumenya niba badakwiye guha inkoni y’ubushumba ababasha kubona umuti mwiza kandi urambye.

Jean-Claude Mulindahabi

Ubuhamya bwa Carla Del Ponte:

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