Iterambere ni iryubakiye ku musingi utajegajega. Uwo musingi ni uwuhe? Ese warashijwe?

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Mu bintu byashoboraga gukorwa muri iyi myaka 22 ishize, harimo bibiri byabaye iyanga, kandi mu by’ukuri ari byo, ibindi byose bisigaye byari kubakirwaho ku buryo burambye, ndetse buha icyizere buri wese.

Icya mbere gikubiye mu ngingo y’ukuri, ubutabera, ubumwe n’ubwiyunge bw’abanyarwanda. Icya kabiri ni ishingwa ry’inzego nyazo z’ubutegetsi zubahiriza amahame ya demokarasi, inzego zikorera inyungu rusange z’abaturage, abangaba akaba ari na bo bashyiraho abazihagarariye binyuze mu mucyo bityo buri muturage akabaho adatinya kuzibaza igihe zitujuje ibyo zamusezeranyije, kuko na we afite ijambo ku mibereho y’igihugu cye.

Kubaka amazu n’imihanda, kongera umubare w’amashuri n’amavuriro, kugendana n’ikoranabuhanga n’ibindi bikorwa by’iterambere ni ngombwa. Muri uru rwego hari byinshi byakozwe kandi ni intambwe nziza. Ibyo bikorwa byagira akarusho byubakiye ku nkingi izatuma bidahungabana.

Dore ibibazo bibiri abanyarwanda bakomeje kwibaza:

Buri muturage afite ikimutunga? Muri iki gihe hariho inzara mu Rwanda, n’ubwo bamwe mu bategetsi bahakana ko idahari, nyamara abaturage barasuhuka bakajya gushaka amaramuko hanze y’Urwanda. Radiyo Ijwi ry’amerika yaganiriye n’abatuye mu duce twibasiwe n’iyo nzara, bamwe bita « Nzaramba », abandi bakayita « Warwaye ryari », abandi bakayita « nyobozi’. Abayobozi bayihakana baba bashaka guhisha ko nta kibazo kirangwa mu gihugu, nyamara ubwo uburyo bwiza bwo gukemura ibibazo si ukubihisha.

Mu bindi bibazo byakwibazwaho mu rwego rw’iterambere, ni ukumenya niba umuturage afite ubushobozi bwo kwivuza no kurihirira umwana we mu ishuri ? Urangije kwiga abona akazi? Ntihariho ababona icyo kurya rimwe ku munsi na byo ari ha Mana? Icya kabiri, baragira bati:  « mbese ibyabashije gukorwa byo, byubakiye ku wuhe musingi »?

Umusingi n’inkingi mwikorezi bavuga ni ubumwe n’ubwiyunge bwakendereye biturutse ku nzangano n’ubwicanyi ndengakamere burimo na jenoside. Hari iterambere rirambye ritubakiye kuri uwo musingi?

Kutireba mu ndorerwamu ni ukwihenda.

Muri iyi myaka 22 ishize, inkunga y’ amahanga yatanzwe ku bwinshi hagamijwe kuzahura igihugu cyari kivuye mu makuba arimo intambara, ubwicanyi ndengakamere na jenoside. Iyo nkunga yari ikenewe kandi n’ubu iracyakenewe kuko 40% by’ingengo y’imari y’Urwanda igizwe n’iyo nkunga y’ amahanga. Hari abemeza ko mu Rwanda hinjiye n’undi mutungo uruta kure iyo nkunga y’amahanga. Hari abemeza ko hari agahiga n’amafaranga atagira ingano yinjiye mu gihugu mu gihe ingabo z’Urwanda zari Kongo. Ibi n’Umuryango w’Abibumbye LONI, wabikozeho inyandiko

Aho ni ho bamwe banahera bakemeza ko ukurikije ubwinshi bw’amafaranga yinjiye mu Rwanda, hashoboraga no kubakwa ibikorwa by’amajyambere birenze ibyo rubanda ibona uyu munsi ndetse nta cyari kuba gitangaje. Aha baba bashaka kuvuga ko hari n’akayabo kigiriye mu mifuka y’abantu ku giti cyabo. Ababikurikiranira hafi bazi ko hari abafite nk’ibya « Mirenge ku Ntenyo »; imitungo yababanye myinshi bagahitamo kwandikisha imwe ku bantu mu buryo bwo kwiha akabanga ariko ay’ubusa rubanda irabimenya. Gutunga byinshi bivuye mu nzira nziza, byo ntakibi kirimo. Aho rubanda igira uburenganzira bwo kubaza no kwibaza ni iyo igice kinini cy’umutungo cyihariwe n’umuntu umwe cyangwa n’abantu mbarwa mu gihe mu baturage hari abavoma ibirohwa. Iki n’ikibazo cyavuzweho kenshi n’ibinyamakuru byandikirwa mu Rwanda.

Ubumwe ni ngombwa ku gihugu

Kuki hari abavuga ko ubumwe n’ubwiyunge bwakomeje kuyoyoka, bugahumira ku mirari kandi bwari ibanze n’imfundo rihatse indi mibereho? Niba abategetsi bo bihanukira bakavuga ko ibintu byifashe neza, hari aho bitaniye no gutwika inzu ugashaka guhisha umwotsi? Bitaniye he no kwireba mu ndorerwamo ukabona ufite ingonera aho kuzikiza ukayijanjagura ngo irakubeshyera? Uburyo bwo gukosora burundu ibyangijwe n’amateka mabi, ni ukwemera gutanga ikiguzi cy’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge.

Icyo kiguzi cyangwa igiciro ni ikihe?

Ubwo bumwe n’ubwiyunge bushamikiye ku kuri n’ubutabera. Uretse n’Urwanda nta kindi gihugu cyavuga ko gifite aho gishingiye, mu gihe imitima y’abana bacyo ihabye, itatanye cyangwa inyanyagiye ishyanga atari uko yabihisemo gutyo. Iki kibazo iyo kigeretseho ko hari ababona ifunguro rimwe ku munsi na byo bigoranye, kuvuga iterambere bisaba kugenza make. Mu ijambo yavuze ataha amagorofa abiri yuzuye mu mugi wa Kigali (City Hall na M. Peace Building), perezida Paul Kagame hari aho yabwiriyemo abahunze ngo bazaze barebe aho ibikorwa by’amajyambere bigeze. Ese koko abo bahunze ntibakurikira? Ntibazi aho igihugu kigeze n’ukuntu itumanaho ribyoroshya muri iki gihe?

Umusingi n’inkingi mwikorezi igihugu nk’Urwanda cyakubakiraho imibereho irambye ni ukuri, ubumwe, ubwiyunge, n’uburenganzira busesuye kuri buri muturage. Muri Nyakanga 1994 hajyaho ubutegetsi bushya byari muri gahunda na disikuru. Hakozwe iki se, ko n’abari bafatanye agatoki mu kandi icyo gihe, bamwe muri bo ko bafashe iy’ubuhungiro, abandi bakicwa.

Ni byo koko bamwe mu bahunze mu w’1994, barahungutse. Ni byo koko ubutegetsi bwashishikarije abantu gutahuka. Nyamara igitangaje ni uko bamwe mu bari muri ubu butegetsi batahwemye na bo ubwabo guhunga. Urugendo rurakiri rwose kuko no mu basangiye akababaro ko mu ishyamba harimo abarebana ay’ingwe, kugeza n’aho kwihekura izuba riva. Abari ku butegetsi bo bavuga ko ibintu bimeze neza kugeza kuri 80%.

Abanyarwanda bafitiye icyizere nde?

Birashoboka ko hari abatekereza ko nta bundi butegetsi bwabaha umutekano, amahoro no guhirwa, nk’uburiho muri iki gihe. Aha ariko nta n’uwakwiyibagiza ko mu gihugu uwo munezero udafitwe na buri wese. Hari benshi batanafite na kimwe mu bintu nkenerwa biza imbere y’ibindi mu mibereho y’abantu. Icya mbere muri byo nta kindi ni ukugira ikigutunga no kudacuzwa ubuzima amanzaganya. Amikoro afitwe na mbarwa. Abakurikira imibereho yo mu Rwanda bavuga ko igice kinini cy’imitungo kiri mu maboko y’abantu babarirwa ku ntoki.

Kimwe mu bimenyetso by’ubukene bushobora kugera no ku butindi ni ukurwara amavunja. Ababoneye abandi izuba bemeza ko amavunja yo kuri kiriya kigero atigeze agera hariya! Ugeze ku kibuga cy’indege, agatambagira umurwa mukuru, agasubira imahanga ataganiriye n’uwaburaye cyangwa n’uwashomereye yibwira ko Urwanda ari paradizo.

Umutekano n’uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu byifashe bite? Umuturage afite cyizere ki mu mutima we mu guhugu, umuntu nka Rwigara Assinapol yicwa kuriya nk’uko byasobanuwe n’umufasha we n’abana, abakamurinze ngo bakabaha urw’amenyo ? Niba umuntu w’igikomerezwa, wanafashije abari ku butegetsti kubugeraho ahita gutya, umuturage usanzwe yashyira umutima mu gitereko ate ? Umuturage usanzwe azatinyuka ate guharanira uburenganzira bwe, nyuma yo kwibonera ibintu nka biriya, cyane cyane ko bimusarika ubwoba buhoraho? Ubuhamya butangwa na EmérenceKayijuka murumuna wa Adéline umufasha wa Rwigara ni ikimenyetso gikomeye ko ubwoba mu banyarwanda burenze urugero. Ese si aha bihera aho bamwe bahitamo kuvuga gusa ibyo bibwira ko byashimisha abafata ibyemezo nyamara bitandukanye n’ibyo bafite ku mutima kugira ngo baramuke kabiri?

Opozisiyo ifite umuti w’ibibazo?

Abantu bakunze kubaza abifuza kujya ku butegetsi bati : « umushinga mufite ni uwuhe uretse kunenga abo mwifuza gusimbura » ? Ni ikibazo gifite ireme gikwiye no gusubizwa abo kireba. Niba abantu bakibaza inshuro zirenze imwe, ebyiri, ni uko abo kireba bakwiye kugaragaza ko ku buryo bunononsoye niba hari umushinga ufatika bafitiye igihugu. Niba uwo mishinga cyangwa iyo mishinga izakosora ibitagenda ihari, ikwiye gutangarizwa abanyarwanda mu nzira zose zishoboka. Hari ababikora ku mbugankoranyambuga na « internet ». Ni imwe mu nzira ariko ntibigera kuri bose.

Ku munsi wa none hari ikindi umuntu yakwibaza. Ni ikihe gisubizo opozisiyo iha abibwira ko amakiriro yabo ashingiye gusa ku ngoma iriho muri iki gihe? Hari n’abumva ko ibintu byatunganye, ko kandi bafite iby’ibanze byose. Hari nabashishikajwe gusa n’uwabihera igihugu gituje, bakiga, bakabona akazi, bagakora imirimo inyuranye, bakihingira, bakorora, bakavuga icyo batekereza batabanje gukebaguzwa. Aba bose babwirwa iki gifatika n’abakora politiki? Bikorwa mu zihe nzira?

Uretse abababaye kubera umukeno, akarengane n’ibindi, hari n’abandi, abashaka kuyobora bagomba kubonera igisubizo kibanyuze niba bashaka kugera ku butegetsi no gushyiraho impinduka nziza. Hari abatekereza ko ibyo bamaze kugeraho byayoyoka habaye ihinduka ry’ubutegetsi. Abo se hari igisubizo kinononsoye opozisiyo ibaha kibumvisha neza ko kugera ku butegetsi bitazabaviramo igihombo ? Hari n’abatekereza ko umutekano no kuramuka babikesha gusa Jenerali major Paul Kagame watsinze urugamba ubu akaba ari ku butegetsi. Aba se bo, abifuza kugera ku butegetsi ntibafite akazi ko kubumvisha ko batahungabana ubutegetsi buhindutse ? Niba gutanga iryo humure bishoboka, opozisiyo niyerekane uko abo bantu bashira impungenge. Opozisiyo na yo iracyafite akazi ko gukumira amacakubiri no koroherana hagati y’abantu.

Kutemera cyangwa kutamenya uburwayi?

Abanyarwanda baciye umugani ngo « ushaka gukira indwara arayirata »
Ku itariki ya 17 Nyakanga 1994, nyuma y’ubwicanyi ndengakamere bwakorewe abanyarwanda bukanabamo jenoside yakorewe abatutsi hagiyeho Leta yiswe iy’ubumwe bw’abanyarwanda.
Kuva icyo gihe kugeza uyu munsi abanyuze muri ubu butegetsi nyuma bakavanamo akabo karenge, bagahungira mu mahanga, ntawakora urutonde rw’abo ngo aruve inyuma. Muri bo harimo abasivili n’abasirikare.

Harimo abayoboye Intekonshingamategeko ( Yozefu Sebarenzi, Alfred Musangamfura), ababaye ba Minisitiri w’Intebe (nka Faustin Twagiramungu, Pierre-Célestin Rwigema watahutse ejobundi amaze kwemera kuyoboka ubutegetsi), ababaye abaminisitiri (nka Seth Sendashonga wiciwe Kenya, Amb. J.M.V. Ndagijimana, Ambas. Dr Anastase Gasana, Célestin Kabanda, Théobald Rwaka, Jean-Baptiste Nkuliyingoma, Patrick Habamenshi, Drocella Mugorewera, André Habib Bumaya, Protais Mitali n’abandi.), abari abasirikari bakuru ( nka ba Jenerali Kayumba Nyamwasa, Jenerali Habyalimana Emmanuel, Colonel Balthazar Ndengeyinka, Koloneli Patrick Karegeya wiciwe Afrika y’Epfo, ba Major J.M. Micombero, Robert Higiro, Major Alphonse Furuma, Major Mupende, n’abandi). Nta kindi gihugu ku isi gihungwa n’abategetsi n’abasirikare bangana batya mu butegetsi bari basanzwemo.

Uwajya imbere y’abanyarwanda akavuga ko nta mpamvu ifite ishingiro yatumye abantu nkaba bahunga yaba ari umunyakuri? Aba bose bahunze kubera ibyaha? Ubumwe buri he? Buri he, ko na bamwe mu basangiye akabisi n’agahiye barebana ay’ingwe? Nta gihugu na kimwe cyo ku isi cyatinyuka kuvuga ko ibintu bigenda neza mu gihe ubumwe bwahungabanye. Umusingi n’inkingi mwikorezi igihugu cyubakiraho nta yindi uretse iy’ubumwe. Ku gihugu nk’Urwanda, iyo nkingi inagendana rimwe na rizima n’iy’ubwiyunge kubera amacakubiri yabayeho.

Aha nanone abaturage barabaza abategetsi bati: « ariko mwibwira ko atari mwe ba mbere mwari mukwiye kwiyunga n’abo mutabona ibintu kimwe »? Abasesengura ikibazo cyUrwanda bemeza ko abaturage nta makimbirane na mba bagirana mu gihe yaba atarangwa ku bahatanira ubutegetsi mu nzira mbi; za zindi zinyonga, zigafunga cyangwa zigacira ishyanga ushatse kuvuga ibyakosorwa, mu gihe bitanyuze nyirububasha mu gihugu cyangwa ugaye ibikorwa bibi.

Ntawakwirengagiza ko mu mpunzi harimo n’izo mu w’1959 zitaratahuka. Urugero rwa hafi ni umwami Kigeli V Ndahindurwa ujya atangaza ko inzira y’ubumwe itaragerwaho neza, bityo ngo yiyemeze gutaha. Hari impunzi zo mu w’1994 zikiri nyinshi hirya no hino ku isi. Si uko zashimye amahanga ahubwo ni uko hari izidafite icyizere cy’imibereho n’umutekano mu gihugu zikomokamo.

Hari imvugo n’imigirire ituma bamwe barushaho gukangarana no kwiheba. Mu gihe igihano cy’urupfu cyavanywe mu mategeko, ni gute abanyarwanda basobanurirwa ko hari abarukwiye kandi igihugu kitari mu ntambara? Urugero muri nyinshi zindi ni ijambo ry’umukuru w’igihugu tariki ya 12 Mutarama 2014. Kubanisha abanyarwanda no kubumvikanisha biruta kure ihangana ricuza bamwe ubuzima.

Iterambere nyaryo ni irigera no ku muturage wo hasi; iterambere nyaryo ni irishyira imbere inyungu rusange kandi rigaharanira ubumwe n’uburinganire bw’abenegihugu. Hari abibaza niba haramutse habayeho inyubako z’agatangaza ariko hakabura umutima, ubumuntu, hakabura gukunda igihugu nyabyo, gukorera inyungu z’abagutoye n’abataragutoye, niba byaba atari ugutera intambwe imwe imbere n’eshatu inyuma? Ni ikibazo buri wese yazirikanaho, by’umwihariko abanyapolitiki.

Jean-Claude Mulindahabi

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