Ibihe turimo: Amasezerano ya Arusha niyo mbarutso y’akaga!

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28/07/2017, yanditswe na Amiel Nkuliza

Ibihe turimo bimaze imyaka irenga 26. Ni ibihe byo mu myaka ya za 91, ubwo Leta ya Habyarimana yari itangiye gushyikirana n’inyenzi-inkotanyi, kuva Ns’ele (Zayire ya cyera) kugeza Arusha muri Tanzaniya. Ibi byari ibihe byo guhangana n’umwanzi wari wateye u Rwanda, no kugabana ubutegetsi hagati y’imitwe yombi yarwanaga : FPR na MRND. Iri shyaka rya Habyarimana ryaje gutsindwa intambara y’amasasu, nyamara riza gutsinda intambara y’inda n’iy’amagambo. Abari ku isonga y’iryo shyaka, barimo abasirikari n’abasiviri, ubu ni bo bashyize mu bikorwa iyubahiriza ry’amasezerano yasinyiwe Arusha, muri kanama 1993.

Turasa n’abimukiye Arusha; aho ni mu gihugu cya Tanzaniya. Imishyikirano, ibera muri hotel «Mount Meru», imara byibura amezi atatu. Iyo amafaranga adushiranye, turongera tukurira indege, tukaruhukira muri BNR (Banque Nationale du Rwanda), gufata ayandi; andi yo guceza mu mahoteri yo mu mujyi wa Arusha, utajya ufunga: amasaha 24/24. Ayo madovize «devises» atagira ingano, ngo ni ayo gushyira mu bikorwa imishyikirano yo kubeshyana; yo gucengana. Imishyikirano yo gushyigikira ibisambo, indahaga, ingabo idashinga, yica igakiza uwo ishaka.

Ku ruhande rwa Leta y’u Rwanda, imishyikirano iyobowe na nyakwigendera minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’amahanga, Boniface Ngulinzira ndetse na Pasteur Bizimungu, ku ruhande rwa FPR-Inkotanyi. Izi nyeshyamba zirashaka ipasura ku myanya y’inzego zose z’ubutegetsi, ndetse no mu ngabo z’u Rwanda, mu mashami yazo, uko ari abiri: ishami rya gisirikari «armée» n’irishinzwe umutekano w’igihugu «gendarmerie».

Ibi ni ibivugirwa imbere mu nama, nyamara inyuma yayo, ibanga rihishe ukuri, ni irindi. Ni ibanga rizamenwa n’abitwa Musare, Mazimpaka na Biseruka, aho barimo kongorerana hagati y’inkuta (couloirs) za hotel «Mount Meru». Bati: «intambara y’amasasu ni yo yonyine izatuma dufata ubutegetsi». Bwarakeye, biraba!

Iri banga rimenwe n’aba bayobozi b’inyeshyamba za FPR, rirasa n’irisanzwe rizwi na benshi mu bahagarariye ibihugu byabo mu Rwanda. Usa n’urizi kubarusha, ambasaderi Johan Swenen, w’igihugu cy’Ububiligi, aravuga rikijyana. Uyu ntazigera abura muri iyo mishyikirano, kuva yatangira kugeza ikubise hasi igihwereye. Gufata ubutegetsi bwose, hakoreshejwe ingufu z’imbunda, bizanemezwa na Paul Kagame i Ngondore, ubwo umunyamakuru wa Radio Rwanda, Emmanuel Ruvugabiwi, yamubazaga, ati: «imishyikirano ninanirana, muzakora iki»? Kagame, na we, mu gusubiza icyo kibazo, ati: «Imishyikirano ninanirana, tuzasubira mu ishyamba»! Bwarakeye, biraba!

Imishyikirano yashyizwe mu bikorwa hagati ya MRND na FPR!

Mbere y’uko batera u Rwanda, abari ku isonga ry’ingabo za FPR bavugaga ko barwanya abari ku isonga ry’ubutegetsi bwa MRND. Igitugu n’ubwikanyize by’ubutegetsi bw’icyo gihe, mu by’ukuri byari birambiranye, ku buryo n’andi mashyaka yari mu gihugu, yari yaratangiye kuburwanya.

Amenshi muri ayo mashyaka, yari akuriwe n’abaturukaga mu bindi bice by’igihugu, byitirirwaga «nduga». Iyi «nduga» yavugaga ko irwanya ubutegetsi bw’abakiga bo muri MRND, nyamara ahubwo ishyigikiye inyeshyamba za FPR. Niba yari izi ingaruka zabyo, ntawamenya ukuri kwabyo. Ingaruka ni izi zose, zo kubaho twicuza, kurusha uko twarwanaga umuhenerezo, ngo turirukana MRND na Habyarimana wayo. Iyo iyi «nduga», idashyigikira «umwanzi», n’ubu Habyarimana aba akirwana na we, cyangwa yaramumenesheje burundu.  Ngiyo «nduga» yahaye imbaraga «ingabo idashinga», ubu yashyize ku ibere bamwe mu bari ku isonga ry’ishyaka rya MRND, yavugaga ko irwanya.

N’ubwo iri shyaka ritashyizwe muri guverinoma FPR igifata ubutegetsi, bamwe mu bari barigize, bayobotse ubutegetsi bwa FPR, bataruhanije. Basubijwe mu ngabo za FPR, bitwaga ko barwanyaga. Impaka zari iza «ngo turwane» mu mishyikirano ya Arusha, yo mu ukwakira 93-mutarama 1994,  mu gika cyayo cyo kuvanga ingabo, ubu zashyizwe mu bikorwa. Ingabo za MRND-CDR-FDLR ubu ziyunze n’iza APR-FPR, zikora umutwe umwe, wagirwagaho impaka mu ukwakira 1993 i Arusha ho muri Tanzaniya. Bagosora, wasaga n’utazi neza ikihishe inyuma y’izo mpaka zo kuvanga ingabo, iyo ativumbura ngo asohoke mu nama, ubu ngirango ntaba afunzwe. Aba wenda yarayobotse nk’izindi, zanze gutatira igihango.

Ndibutsa ko colonel Bagosora yasohotse mu nama kubera ikibazo cy’ivanga ry’ingabo za Leta n’iz’inyeshyamba cyari cyarananiranye gukemurwa. Bagosora yarwanyaga ko ingabo za FPR zigirwa abagaba bakuru «officiers» ngo kubera ko zari inkandagirabitabo, naho Bizimungu agasobanura ko impamvu ingabo za FPR ari inkandagira, ari uko ngo ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana bwazibujije kwiga!

Kubera imbaraga FPR yari ifite muri iriya mishyikirano, icyifuzo cya Bagosora cyateshejwe agaciro, Ngulinzira abura uko agira, asinyira izo nkandagirabitabo, na zo ziyuburura mo aba «officiers» zityo. Ngaho ahaturutse ikinyoma cya FPR ko ngo Bagosora yasohotse mu nama agiye gutegura imperuka y’abatutsi (apocalypse), icyaha cyaburiwe ibimenyetso ubwo yitabaga urukiko mpuzamahanga rwashyiriweho u Rwanda, rukorera Arusha muri Tanzaniya.

Ni nde wibeshye, ni nde wari mu kuri?

MRND na FPR ni amashyaka mu by’ukuri yari agizwe n’ibisambo, byashakaga kuguma cyangwa gufata ubutegetsi ku ngufu. N’ubwo kimwe muri ibi bisambo cyatsinze intambara y’amasasu, cyasanze kitagomba kwirengagiza ibyitso byacyo. Ibi bivuze ko abayobozi ba FPR banze gutaba mu nama aba MRND. Nguko uko ba Rwarakabije, Ngendahimana, bari bararemye umutwe wo kwiyerurutsa ko ngo barwanya FPR, batashye, n’abandi bakaba barimo gutaha, imishyikirano ku bandi bagiseta ibirenge bo muri FDLR, ikaba igikomeza.

Icyatumye itinda, si ikindi: FDLR iracyashakisha inkunga yo gufata Kivu yose. Iyi nkunga nidatangwa n’ubutegetsi bwa Kigali, izaboneka muri ba gashakabuhake, bakirwanira gucukura amabuye y’agaciro muri kariya karere. FDLR nifata burundu Kivu yose, ntacyo bizatwara ubutegetsi bwa FPR, kubera ko ari na cyo bwarwaniraga, ubwo bwashyiragaho umutwe w’inyeshyamba, bwari bwarabatije izina rya «M23». «Kariya gace kose kari u Rwanda; ni ngombwa kukabohoza», aya ni amagambo yavuzwe na Pasteur Bizimungu, mu kiganiro  n’abanyamakuru, mu mwaka w’1995.

Uwapfuye yarihuse, ufunzwe yaribeshye : uyu ni wa munyenduga washyigikiye abo atari azi neza. Uwibeshye ni twebwe, ni wowe na njye, twashyigikiye «umwanzi», watugororeye kukitwirukanamo no kuduhigira aho twamuhungiye. Uwari mu kuri ni umufatanyacyaha, n’ubwo na we, ubu arimo kurira ku mpembyi.

Imishyikirano ya Arusha, yo guhagarika intambara no kugabana ubutegetsi hagati ya MRND na FPR, ni yo mu by’ukuri yaduteje akaga. Aka kandare kagombye kugira icyo katwigisha. Hari abungukiye muri iyo mishyikirano n’abayihombeye mo. Abayungukiye mo ni abashoje intambara bombi, bamwe bayitsindisha amasasu, abandi bayitsindisha inda zabo. Icyo twagombye kwigira kuri ibi bisambo byombi ni uko twamenye neza inzira zikoreshwa zo gufata ubutegetsi, kubugabana cyangwa kubwiharira burundu. Ikibabaje ni uko izi nzira aho kuzikoresha, tuzitera umugongo, tukayoboka iz’amagambo, iz’amashyaka, amakaramu n’amatora.

«Aya matora ikizayavamo kirazwi», «Nta makaramu afata ubutegetsi», «Injiji ni izize». Ngiyo intero n’inyikirizo, «slogan», Paul Kagame amaranye imyaka irenga 20. Abayitera, tukanayikiriza, turi benshi. Kagame yabonye inzira ya nyayo, ubwo yashozaga intambara, ibyitso bye bimutera ingabo mu bitugu, bimusaba imishyikirano. Usaba imishyikirano ni uko aba yatsinzwe intambara. Nta n’usaba imishyikirano, atarafata na segiteri. «Mbwira abumva», ku mugani wa wa mucuranzi!

 

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