Haracyari impaka zerekana ko Itegekonshinga rifite inenge. Abanyarwanda bapfunyikiwe amazi?

Abanyarwanda bakenyeye, abandi bikoreye inkangara, bari ku murongo bajyanye ubusabe bwo kuvugurura Itegekonshinga. Umwaka ushize w'2015. Ifoto zo kuri "internet"
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Yanditswe na Jean-Claude Mulindahabi

Muri iyi minsi, abanyarwanda bongeye kujya impaka ku Itegekonshinga. Ibi bibaye hashize umwaka umwe gusa rivuguruwe, ndetse n’abanyarwanda baritoreshejwe.

Izo mpaka ntizabaye gusa hagati y’abashimagiza ubutegetsi n’abatavugarumwe na bwo. Icyagaragaye ni uko n’abatari mu ihururu ry’izi mpande ebyiri bakomeje kwerekana impungenge ku miterere y’iri tegekonshinga nk’uko bari baranabigaragaje rikitwa umushinga. Impaka zibanze ahanini ku ngingo y’100, iy’101, n’iy’172. Izo mpaka zanagarutse ku kuntu abaturage bajyanwe muri iki gikorwa kugeza batoye muri « referendum » yo ku itariki ya 17  Ukuboza 2015 ku banyarwanda bari hanze, n’iya 18 Ukuboza 2015 ku bari imbere mu gihugu.

Mbere yo kubagezaho uko izo mpaka zari zifashe, ni ngombwa  ko twibukiranya neza igisobanuro cy’Itegekonshinga n’imiterere yaryo.

Itegekonshinga ni itegeko risumba ayandi yose mu gihugu. Ni itegeko rihatse ayandi yose kuko andi mategeko ashyirwaho ntashobora kujya hanze y’umurongo waryo (andi mategeko yose ashyirwaho atabangamiye ibyagenwe n’Itegekonshinga). Itegenshinga ryerekana mu buryo bwa rusange imiterere y’imiyoborere hagati y’abategetsi n’abayoborwa mu gihugu.

Itegekonshinga ryerekana uburenganzira abaturage bafite mu gihugu cyabo. Mu rwego rwo kubungabunga ubwo burenganzira bw’abaturage, Itegekonshinga rikumira uwakwitwaza ububasha afite kubera urwego rw’ubutegetsi arimo akaba yarengera. Urugero, ni nk’uko Itegekonshinga ryerekana aho ububasha bw’inzego z’ubutegetsi butangirira n’aho bugarukira (yaba ubutegetsi nyubahiriza-tegeko (Exécutif), ubutegetsi-nshingamategeko (Législatif), n’ubutegetsi ncamanza (Judiciaire). Urundi rugero ni nk’ibisabwa ngo umuntu yemererwe kuba umukuru w’igihugu n’igihe yemererwa kumara ayobora igihugu.

Itegekonshinga rikubiyemo amahame, ingingo zigamije gufasha igihugu n’abaturage bacyo kubaho mu buryo buboneye, aho buri wese ahabwa amahirwe n’uburenganzira bizira isumbana cyangwa ivangura.

Itegekonshinga rikoze neza riba ari urufatiro n’intango y’uburenganzira bw’abenegihugu. Ni yo mpamvu Itegekonshinga rigomba gutegurwa abantu bareba kure (ejo hazaza, no mu myaka myinshi iri imbere ku gihugu). Ni yo mpamvu kandi Itegekonshinga ridashobora gukorwa nk’inyandiko igamije inyungu z’ishyaka cyangwa mu nyungu z’ibihe bigifi abantu barimo.

Itegekonshinga ni itegeko rikuru andi ashamikiraho, akaba ari yo mpamvu riba rigomba guhabwa umwambaro w’igihe kirekire kandi ubereye inyungu z’abenegihugu bose ntawigijweyo cyangwa ngo rigire uwo riha uburenganzira ku giti cye burenze ubw’abandi benegihugu.

Byari bikwiye ko mbere yo gushyikiriza abaturage umushinga w’ivugururwa w’iryo tegekonshinga, abagize inzego zibishinzwe mu Rwanda, bagombaga kubanza kuzirikana ko Itegekonshinga rikorwa gusa mu nyungu rusange z’abenegihugu. Kuba muri iyi minsi, impaka zarongeye kugibwa ritaramara n’umwaka, na cyo ni ikimenyetso ko rifite inenge mu maso y’abanyarwanda.

Impaka zagiwe ku zihe ngingo?

Ikinyamakuru “Igihe” kiri hafi y’ubutegetsi ku itariki ya 08/12/2016 kivuga ko impaka zabaye urudaca ku mbuga nkoranyambaga muri iyi minsi ku ngingo y’100 y’iryo tegekonshinga. Bamwe bemeza ko itagaragaza niba abaturage bafite uburenganzira bwo gutora nk’uko byari bisanzwe bisobanutse neza mu Itegekonshinga ritaravugururwa. Umunyamakuru Robert (Bob) Mugabe yavuze ko abantu batoye Itegeko Nshinga mu 2015 batoye ibinyuranye n’uburenganzira bwabo bwo kwihitiramo Perezida wa Repubulika. Kiriya kinyamakuru « Igihe » gisobanura ko Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikirwa wa komisiyo y’amatora Munyaneza Charles avuga ko ingingo y’100 mu Itegekonshinga ivuga igihe itora ribera, ko itavuga abatora Perezida, ngo biratandukanye. Asobanura ko itegeko-ngenga rigenga itora rivugwa mu Itegeko Nshinga rihari, ko ari ryo rigena uburyo amatora akorwamo.

Charles Munyaneza, umunyamabanga nshingabikorwa wa komosiyo y'amatora (ibumoso), umunyamakuru Robert (Bob) Mugabe, umwanditsi mukuru wa "Greatlakesvoice" (iburyo)

Charles Munyaneza, umunyamabanga nshingabikorwa wa komosiyo y’amatora (ibumoso), umunyamakuru Robert (Bob) Mugabe, umwanditsi mukuru wa « Greatlakesvoice » (iburyo)

Izindi mpaka zagaragaye muri iyi minsi ni izishingiye ku ngingo y’101 n’y’172 z’iri tegekonshinga. Hari abanyarwanda bari mu mpaka kuri « twitter », abandi ku zindi mbuga nkoranyambaga nka DHR (Democracy and Human Rights). Mu bazitangije hanarimo umunyamakuru Isidore Ismaïl Mbonigaba, umuyobozi mukuru wa « Rwanda-Géopolitique« , ikinyamakuru cya « VEPELEX« . Mbonigaba yari ku murongo umwe n’umwanditsi w’ibitabo François Munyabagisha, batangaje ko Itegekonshinga ryavuguruwe ritemerera Jenerali Paul Kagame, perezida w’u Rwanda muri iki gihe kwiyamamaza bwa gatatu. Abazi igifaransa mwabisoma mu nyandiko ya Mbonigaba yanditse tariki ya 04/12/2016 mu kinyamakuru « Rwanda-Géopolitique », ifite umutwe: « Le général Kagame est inéligible en 2017 ». Mbonigaba na Munyabagisha bavuga ko abikoze yaba yubahutse Itegekonshinga ubwaryo ndetse ko yaba yubahutse n’abanyagihugu bose, akaba yaba atatiye igihango yagiranye na bo mu ndahiro yakoze inshuro ebyiri, mu w’2003 no mu w’2010. Bongeraho ko cyaba ari icyaha kiremereye.

Isidore Ismaïl Mbonigaba umuyobozi wa VEPELEX (ibumoso), Amb. Olivier Nduhungirehe, uhagarariye u Rwanda mu Bubiligi (iburyo)

Isidore Ismaïl Mbonigaba umuyobozi wa VEPELEX (ibumoso), Amb. Olivier Nduhungirehe, uhagarariye u Rwanda mu Bubiligi (iburyo)

Izi mpaka zose zagaragayemo na Ambasaderi w’u Rwanda mu Bubiligi Olivier Nduhungirehe, ndetse n’impuguke mu mategeko zirimo na Me Innocent Twagiramungu akaba na nyirirurubuga DHR.

Muri make umunyamakuru Isidore Ismaïl Mbonigaba n’umwanditsi w’ibitabo François Munyabagisha bibutsa ko mu mushinga w’Itegekonshinga hari handitsemo ku buryo busobanutse ko perezida wa repubulika usanzweho ashobora no kuziyamamariza manda y’indi y’imyaka 7 izatangira mu w’2017. Nk’uko n’umwe mu banyamakuru ba umunyamakuru.com, yabikomojeho, bariya bagabo bombi, berekana ko inyandiko ya nyuma (version finale) y’Itegekonshinga yashyikirije rubanda muri « referendum », bavanyemo icyo kintu cyo guha uburenganzira perezida wa repubulika uyobora muri iki gihe. Ikibazo kiba kumenya impamvu batagumanye inyandiko ya mbere (version initiale) yamuhaga ubwo burenganzira ku buryo bwanditse, niba koko byari mu byifuzo. Kuba barabivanyemo, bihita bimwaka ayo mahirwe.

Bakongera bakabaza bati « niba koko rubanda yari yarabisabye, bakaba bari bubahirije icyo cyifuzo mu mushinga, nyamara nyuma bakakivanamo mu nyandiko babahaye gutora, ababikoze bafungiye amayira yo kongera kwiyamamza perezida Kagame. Mu minsi yashize, Padiri Thomas Nahimana, na we yari yarabikozeho inyandiko irambuye.

Mu gusubiza, iki kibazo, umwe mu bategetsi b’u Rwanda wize amategeko, akaba ahagarariye igihugu mu Bubiligi, Olivier Nduhungirehe, yavuze ko, ubwo nta hantu na hamwe habuza Paul Kagame kongera kwiyamamaza, ko bivuze ko abyemerewe. Ibi na Maître Innocent Twagiramungu yemeje ko ari cyo bivuga mu rwego rw’amategeko.

Ikinyamakuru « umunyamakuru.com, cyabajije Amb. Olivier Nduhungirehe, gihereye ku bivugwa ko ireme ry’ibanze riranga itegeko iryo ari ryo ryose ryirengagijwe, ubwo hatekerezwaga guhindura Itegekonshinga.  Ubaza, yatangiriye ku ihame ry’uko itegeko ridashyirwaho cyangwa ngo rihindurwe kubera umuntu runaka (byaba bimuha umurengera cyangwa se byaba kumubuza icyo yari yari yemerewe). Ni icyo mu gifaransa bita: « le principe de la portée générale et impersonnelle d’une loi. » Ubusanzwe itegeko ryose rigomba gushyirwaho cyangwa rigahindurwa rishingiye kuri iryo hame. Iyo bigeze ku Itegekonshinga iryo hame riritwararikwa by’intangarugero.

Ubaza rero, yagize: « none bishoboka bite ko imbarutso (impamvu y’ibanze) yatumye Itegekonshinga rihindurwa umwaka ushize kwari ukugira ngo Jenerali Paul Kagame ahabwe manda zirenze ebyiri? » Ntibyerekana ko habaye gutatira ririya hame? Nubwo banaboneyeho bagahindura na zimwe mu zindi ngingo ariko icya mbere cyari kigamijwe cyari uguha umuntu ku giti cye umurengera! Ibintu bidasanzwe byabaye n’abaturage bivugira, ni uko bakoreweho ikinamico, bakikorezwa inkangara bagana mu nteko ngo bajyanye ubusabe (pétitions). Muri abo baturage harimo abatangarije abanyamakuru bari mu Rwanda ko:

  1. Babahaga amafaranga yo kujya muri icyo gikorwa, ndetse banavuze ko banabasengereraga. Ibi babyita ruswa (corruption). Mushobora kubyumva babyivugira ku mpera z’iyi nyandiko.
  2. Hari n’abaturage babwiye abo banyamakuru ko bababwiraga ngo musinye hano. Bavuga ko nta mahitamo bari bafite, kandi hari n’abo babibwiraga mu kazi ko kutabyemera byari kubaviramo kwirukanwa. Abaturage batazi kwandika bavuga ko basinyiwe n’abayobozi. Na none ku mpera z’iyi nyandiko murahasanga inyandiko n’ibiganiro abaturage batanze bavuga ko bakoreweho ikinamico. Mu gusubiza iyi nzitane y’ikibazo, Amb. Nduhungirehe yagumye gusa ku kuvuga ko nta hantu habuza Paul Kagame kongera kwiyamamaza, yirinda kugira icyo avuga ku bya ririya hame ryirengagijwe, ntiyanagira icyo abasha gusobanura ku byakorewe ku baturage.
François Munyabagisha, umwanditsi w'ibitabo (ibumoso), Me Innocent Twagiramungu, "avocat" mu rugaga rw'ababuranira abantu i Buruseli, ni we washinze "forum" DHR (iburyo)

François Munyabagisha, umwanditsi w’ibitabo (ibumoso), Me Innocent Twagiramungu, « avocat » mu rugaga rw’ababuranira abantu i Buruseli, ni we washinze « forum » DHR (iburyo)

Mu bindi byagaragaye mu mpaka, harimo abongeye kwerekana ko bitumvikana ukuntu, ririya Tegekonshinga rikubiyemo umugambi wo guha umuntu umwe (Jenerali Paul Kagame) uburenganzira bwo kurenza manda ebyiri agiye kurangiza, ndetse rikamuha n’inzira yo kuba yakwiyamamaza kugeza kuri manda eshanu zose. Maître Innocent Twagiramungu ari mu basanga, Itegekonshinga ryavuguruwe ritanga icyuho cy’abatifuza inzira ya demokarasi. Asanga kandi ridatanga amahirwe angana ku bakora politiki. Maître Twagiramungu akerekana ko biteye impungenge kubona abategetsi batarinjiwe n’umuco wo kumenya ko igihugu kitatera imbere mu gihe abashobora gukora neza kurenza abari ku butegetsi bafungirwa amayira hashyirwaho amategeko abakumira, cyangwa no kubabuza amahwemo mu bundi buryo.

Mu mpera z’iyi nyandiko, mwiyumvire n’icyo perezida Paul Kagame yavuze nyuma gato Itegekonshinga rimaze kuvugururwa. Yaravuze ngo « mwansabye kuzakomeza kuyobora igihugu, nta kuntu ntabyemera. » Hari uzi impamvu atavuze ngo « mwansabye kuzongera kwiyamamariza kuyobora igihugu? »

Ku rubuga DHR ruhuriweho n’abantu basaga 5000, uwitwa Kayitani yahinnye ibisobanuro byatanzwe na Fons Ildefonse kuri iki kibazo cy’Itegekonshinga rinengwa agira ati: « muri make ibisobanuro uduhaye, bishatse kuvuga ko iyo umujura yibye ntibabone ibyo yibye n’ibimenyetso simusiga ko yibye, urukiko rumuhanaguraho icyaha kandi na we azi neza ko yibye. Aba azi ko atari umwere ariko urukiko rumuhanaguraho icyaha. Nonese wavuga ko umwunganira ari we wize neza kurusha abandi cyangwa ko umucamanza ari umuswa? »

Kuri ibi bisobanuro, twongereho ko mu rwego rw’amategeko, iyo hari irikoze ku buryo butabereye abenegihugu, baharanira ko ryahindurwa, cyangwa rikavugururwa binyuze mu nzira zateganyijwe, ariko iyo bitarakorwa, riba rigomba kubahirizwa uko riri. Iryo na ryo ni ihame rigenga amategeko. Abanyarwanda bafite uburenganzira bwo kugira icyo bavuga ku mategeko abagenga, ajyaho akajyaho, avugururwa akavugururwa, avanwaho akavanwaho, kandi bigakorwa ku nyungu rusange no mu nzira zagenwe. Hari abakibaza niba Itegekonshinga ryaravuguruwe binyuze mu nzira no mu buryo bwubahirije amategeko ubwayo. Abibaza batyo bafite icyo bashingiraho nk’uko bigaragara mu ngero zo munsi hano.

Abazi ururimi rw’igifaransa mwasoma inkuru ya RFI aho abaturage bavuga ko iyo badasinyira ubusabe, bashoboraga kwirukanwa ku kazi. Bivuga ko no gutora byari uko.

http://m.rfi.fr/emission/20150715-rwanda-kagame-petition-revision-constitutionnelle-invite-afrique

Abaturage babwiye abanyamakuru ko binjiye mu gikorwa kuko babisabwe n’abayobozi:

Paul Kagame ati: « mwansabye kuzakomeza kuyobora igihugu, nta kuntu ntabyemera! »

 

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