Akarere k’ibiyaga bigari: ikirwa mu nyanja gitsikamiwe n’igitugu.

Abayobozi b'Akarere k'Iburasirazuba bw'Afurika
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28/01/2017, yanditswe na Emmanuel Senga

Afurika warakubititse, ariko noneho ibiyaga binini biranegekaye. Ubusanzwe tumenyereye ko iki gice cy’Afurika kiyobowe n’abanyagitugu bishyize ku butegetsi babihawe n’urugomo, n’intambara n’iterabwoba rivanze n’ubwicanyi ndengakamere, bitwaje ngo barabohora ibihugu, ahubwo bishakire indonke zabo, iz’imiryango yabo n’ababahakwaho bose,  ku buryo icyari gitegerejwe nyuma y’imyaka 31 ya Museveni, 23 ya Kagame,12 ya Nkurunziza na 16 ya Kabila ni uko iki gice cy’isi cyatangira gutekereza kuyoboka inzira ya demokarasi. Ariko rero byarananiranye, impamvu ikaba ko aba banyagitugu bagitegeka bumvikanye ko batazavaho  bavanyweho n’amatora; ahubwo ko bose bagomba guhindura Itegeko Nshinga bakiyimika kugeza bavanyweho n’imbunda.

Muri ibi bihugu by’aka karere uko ari 4 ( Uganda, Rwanda, Congo n’u Burundi) ni ko bimeze. Ikibabaje muri iyi migirire ni uko biyemeje gukomeza gukenesha abaturage, bakabaheza mu buzahare bujyana n’ubwo bukene, mu gihe bo barimo gusahura ibihugu bitwa ko bategeka. Abatuye ibi bihugu nta mahitamo bafite ngo bigobotore izi ngoma mpotozi, kuko aba banyagitugu babaragije imbunda. Ushoboye kubacika arahunga, utabishoboye akayoboka, agahebera urwaje agategereza umunsi we. Hagati aho akagenda apfa yumva, nta we yatakira ngo amwumve, kuko n’amahanga arangaye, ayandi abanyagitugu bakayabeshya ko nta heza haruta ibihugu bayoboye. Kuzagobotora ibi bihugu muri uyu murunga w’urupfu birasaba ubwitange bukomeye bw’abagize Imana bakagira ubwinyagamburiro, ariko kandi n’ubufatanye bukomeye, kuko igitugu cyubatswe cyikikije inkuta z’ingufu zidasanzwe, ariko kandi zishobora gutsindwa.

None bizagenda gute ngo abenegihugu batangire guhangamura ibi bitugu, ese birashoboka ko hagenda hahangamurwa kimwe kimwe, cyangwa ni ngombwa kubigabaho ibitero icyarimwe? Ese abaturage b’ibi bihugu bifitemo imbaraga zihagije cyangwa zishobora gushyirwa hamwe maze bagahangana n’izi ngoma? Cyangwa bazahebera urwaje bazakizwe n’urupfu rw’aba banyagitugu? Ibi ni byo bibazo dushaka kugerageza gushakira ibisubizo muri uyu mwandiko.

Mbere na mbere ni ngombwa ko abantu bamenya ko iki gice cy’Afurika gitegekwa n’abanyagitugu bafitanye amasano.

Uhereye kuri Yoweri Museveni ugana kuri Kabila, usanga aba baperezida bafitanye amasano, ku buryo biruhije gutekereza ko hari ushobora kwemera inzira ya demokarasi, igihe hari undi ukijijinganya. Ibi ni ihame iyo urebye icyo bapfana n’uko bafatanyije kwimikana. Museveni ni we watangiye inzira y’ishyamba, mu myaka ya za 1970. ubwo nyuma ya « coup d’état » yo muri 1971 yakozwe na Idi Amin, Museveni na we agahita ahungira muri Tanzaniya, agahita atangiza inyeshyamba ze (1972-1980) na zo zigatangiza intambara guhera muri 1981 kugeza bakuyeho ubutegetsi muri 1986, nyuma yo kujya mu masezerano y’amahoro ya nyirarureshwa yaberaga muri Kenya yiswe « Nairobi Agreement », yashyizweho umukono kuri 29/7/ 1985, ariko ntashyirwe mu bikorwa.

Umugwa mu ntege ni Paul Kagame, na we waje kujya mu nyeshyamba za Museveni aho zatangiriye muri Tanzaniya, agatahukana na we, ari umwe mu nyeshyamba nkuru kugeza zibaye ingabo za Uganda bamaze gufata Kampala muri 1986, ari na bwo yagizwe Umukuru w’iperereza rya gisirikari mu gihugu cya Uganda.

Ku kagambane ka Museveni, impunzi z’abanyarwanda zari mu gisirikari cya Uganda zoroherejwe gutera u Rwanda, ku bufatanye bwa Leta ya Uganda zibasha gufata igihugu zimaze kwica abenegihugu batabarika, bari babanjirijwe n’abandi bana b’u Rwanda bari bishwe no gutekereza gucye kw’abavandimwe babo, bakicwa bazira ubwoko bwabo, kuko bari abatutsi. Izi mpfu z’abana b’u Rwanda ku mpande zombi zakoze mu nda igihugu, zigisigira ibikomere bitazigera bisibangana.

Ku rundi ruhande Petero Nkurunziza n’inyeshyamba za CNDD-FDD ze na bo bari baragiye kwitoreza mu mashyamba ya Tanzaniya, na bo bavuye mu mishyikirano yaje gutuma bavanga ingabo, aza kugera nubwo yitoza kuba Perezida w’igihugu.

Yozefu Kabila we yasimbuye se wari umaze kwicwa, ariko yarashyizweho na Museveni na Kagame, nyuma y’imishyikirano nanone ya nyirarureshwa yabereye muri Afurika y’Epfo. Laurent Désiré Kabila yayivamo akaza agakomeza intambara afashijwe n’ingabo za Kagame na Museveni kugeza Mobutu Sese Seko ahunze igihugu. Biragaragara ko izi nyeshyamba zo mu Karere zari ziyemeje gushyigikirana mu ntambara z’ubusahuzi n’ubwicanyi.

Hari ibintu bitatu bihuza izi nyeshyamba:

Aho zakoreye imyitozo, gutangiza imishyikirano itagira icyo igeraho no gufata igihugu kigakomeza kuyoborwa gisirikari.

Nk’uko byakunze kugaragara kuva na kera na kare Tanzaniya yabaye igihugu cyafashije mu kubohora Afurika, guhera ku bihugu by’amajyepfo y’Afurika birimo Afurika y’Epfo, Zimbabwe, Namibiya ndetse n’Angola kimwe na Mozambike. Ibi bikaba byari umwihariko wa Perezida Julius Nyerere wifuzaga ko Afurika yacikamo ivanguramoko ndetse n’ubukoloni. Ibi byarakomeje kugeza Tanzaniya itoje kandi igafasha Uganda, Rwanda n’u Burundi ikageza inyeshyamba z’ibi bihugu ku butegetsi.

Ikindi ni uko n’ubusanzwe iyo inyeshyamba zateye igihugu, ikiba cyitezwe ni uko haba hagomba gukurikiraho imishyikirano. Arusha ya Tanzaniya ikaba isa nk’aho yabaye umujyi mukuru w’imishyikirano, gusa iyi mishyikirano ntijya irangiza intambara. Inyeshyamba zikoresha ya mayeri y’imishyikirano zigaca ruhinga nyuma zigafata ibipande by’igihugu, zigacengera maze zigashyikirana ari zo zifite imbaraga n’ubutaka bunini. Iki gihe rero zibona ko gusinyira amahoro biba bitakiri ngombwa, kuko ziba zizeye gutsinda. Ikindi gikunda kuzifasha ni uko amahanga akunze gufatira ibihano ibihugu biri muri bene izo ntambara, cyane cyane ibihano byo kubibuza kugura intwaro, mu gihe inyeshyamba zo nta bizigeraho.

Icya nyuma kiboneka muri izi ntambara z’inyeshyamba ni uko umuyobozi wa gisirikari ari we witangaho umuyobozi w’igihugu. Bitangira bavuga ko ari ubufatakibanza bagitegereje ko igihugu giterera ngo kijye mu nzira isanzwe y’ubuyobozi, ariko bikarangira ari we wiyimitse ubuziraherezo. Ni ko byagenze muri Uganda, mu Rwanda, muri Congo no mu Burundi nubwo muri iki gihugu bisa nk’aho bitandukanye n’ahandi, ariko ntibitandukanye cyane.

Aha rero ni ho hakomereye ibi bihugu byacu. Izi nyeshyamba ziraza zigafata igihugu zikagitegeka kinyeshyamba, ahasigaye zigasahura, ubundi abaturage zikabasubiza mu bucakara kugira ngo hatagira uwinyagambura akazibuza  gusahura. Nta burenganzira wasanga mu bihugu bitegekwa n’inyeshyamba zihinduye abanyapolitiki. Zandikisha amategeko mu bitabo by’amategeko , ariko mu ngiro zigakoresha ayo mu ishyamba. Ikindi gikunze kurangwa n’ubu butegetsi bw’inyeshyamba, kubera ko ziba zitegekesha igitugu kitababarira, abaturage bagira ubwoba, bagahinduka abagaragu b’abanyagitugu, bakihindura ba maneko b’ubutegetsi, ku buryo usanga biruhije kumenya ukorera koko urwego rw’iperereza rwemewe n’amategeko. Ibi bifasha abanyagitugu, kuko ntibaba bagikeneye gukurikirana buri muturage; abaturage ni bo basa nk’aho basubiranyemo bakanekana kakahava. Ibi tubisanga muri ibi bihugu byose by’aka karere.

Amasano mu gukomeza igitugu mu Karere.

Nk’uko twabibonye Museveni yabyaye Kagame, bombi babyara ba Kabila bombi, na ho Nkurunziza twavuga ko yabyawe na Tanzaniya. Aya masano rero akaba yerekana ko no kurekura ubutegetsi bikurikira iyi nzira. Kugeza ubu Museveni yahinduye Itegeko Nshinga nta wuzi igihe azarambirirwa ubutegetsi, Kagame yahise amukurikira na we ahindura Itegeko Nshinga, na we nta wuzi igihe azahagira ubutegetsi; ejobundi Nkurunziza na we yumvikanishije ko abarundi bagomba na bo guhindura Itegeko Nshinga, amaze kuvana igihugu cye mu Rukiko Mpuzamahanga Mpanabyaha; Kabila yarabishatse ntibyakunda, ariko na we yanze kurekura ubutegetsi, bikaba bigaragara ko abigirwamo inama n’abamubyaye kugira ngo atabasigira uwo musaraba bonyine.

Uko bigaragara nta n’umwe ushobora gukora ikinyuranye n’abandi, bose bahujwe n’icyaha cyo kugundira ubutegetsi. Ntibashaka ko hari uwataba undi mu nama. Ibi rero bikaba bisobanura ko abenegihugu b’ibi bihugu bagomba gutekereza cyane, ntibanyurwe manuma n’amagambo kenshi asize umunyu yo kubarangaza, aha ngo bagiye kwivugurura, bagiye kurekura ubutegetsi, bagiye kuyobora kidemokarasi n’ibindi…Museveni niba atarekuye ubutegetsi bamenye ko Kagame, Nkurunziza, Kabila na bo batazaburekura. Umunsi Museveni yaburekuye abaturage b’aka karere bazamenye ko bashobora kuba batekereza ko n’iwabo byashoboka. Icyo bisobanura ni uko gushaka guhindura ubutegetsi muri kariya karere bigomba gukorerwa hamwe, bitavuze ko abanyarwanda, abarundi, abanyekongo n’abanyayuganda bagomba gutangirira rimwe bakabuhirikira rimwe. Si cyo bivuga. Buri gihugu kigomba gutangiza inzira yacyo yo gutsinsura igitugu, byaba amahire bakaba baba imbarutso y’impinduka mu Karere. Twibuke uko abanyekongo cyangwa abarundi bari batangiye gutera intambwe,  ahatari hagira igikorwa ni mu Rwanda no muri Uganda. Ariko rero igihe cyari iki, kuko haraboneka ibimenyetso byafasha iyi nzira y’impinduka.

Mu Rwanda Paul Kagame nubwo akoresha amayeri yavanye mu kazi ke k’ubunetsi, icyo umuntu yavuga atigeza akoresha n’ubuhanga bugezweho bw’ikoranabuhanga. Koko rero mu gihe yagombaga kuba ari kumwe n’abaturage kugira ngo ababwire, abakange abateranye, ubu si ngombwa ko abantu baba bari hamwe kugira ngo bakore inama; amabanga yabikwaga ashyirwa ahagaragara n’ikoranabuhanga, kandi buri munsi bitera imbere. Aha rero Kagame arahatsindwa. Kabone n’uburyarya bukoreshwa mu kubeshya amahanga, na bwo bugenda bushyirwa ahagaragara. Igisabwa ni ukumenya gukoresha ubu buhanga ngo abaturage bagere ku cyo bifuza. Urugero ruto natanga ni nko gukwirakwiza amakuru mu Rwanda hifashishijwe amajwi. Ubu biroroshye cyane singomba kwinjira muri buri ntambwe, kuko si ngombwa, ariko n’ibindi bishobora gukorwa binyuze muri iri koranabuhanga. Ikindi gishoboka kandi cya ngombwa ni ugutsura umubano n’amahanga agasobanurirwa ibikorerwa mu bihugu byacu.

Ndakeka ko kuba turi mu bihugu binyuranye byoroshye guhuza imbaraga abantu bagasobanurira ibi bihugu. Ibi bikunze kuruhanya, kubera ko ibihugu bikorana n’ibihugu, ariko birashoboka, kuko aho ubushake buri, haba hari n’ubushobozi. Ni ngombwa ko abenegihugu bashaka impinduka mu Karere kacu batangira hakiri kare, ni intambara ndende ishaka kwihangana, isaba guhozaho. Abenegihugu bifuza kuyijyamo bagomba kudatekereza ko ari ejo bazahirika ibyo bitugu, kubera impamvu imwe yumvikana: aba banyagitugu bafite ibihugu n’ibyo bitunze byose, mu gihe abashaka impinduka nta byo bafite. Birumvikana ko uburyo butangana ku mpande zombi, ariko ntibibuza ko ibintu bishoboka.

Umuntu ahereye kuri izi ngingo twavuze, birumvikana ko guhirika ziriya ngoma z’ibitugu bitoroshye, ariko kubera akababaro abaturage barimo, ni ngombwa gufata ingamba zizimije kandi abenegihugu , mu gihugu cyabo bakamenya ko ari bo bonyine bagomba kwirwanaho, bafatanyije n’abaturage bari ku munigo w’igitugu. Birasaba ko abatwararumuri b’abenegihugu bashyira ingufu zabo hamwe mu buryo bazumvikanamo, burimo gukorera hamwe ku buryo bw’impuzamashyaka, cyangwa se ku buryo bw’ubutegetsi bukorera hanze bushobora kwaka imishyikirano bukabona n’inkunga y’amahanga, kandi ntibwiyibagize ko bugomba guteganya n’ishami rya gisirikari. Hari impungenge ko biramutse binyuze mu gisirikari byaba nk’ibyo abandi bakoze, hagahoraho gatebe gatoki k’inyeshyamba. Ariko ibi ntibiteye ubwoba, kuko abashaka impinduka barabizi, ku buryo batakwemera ko abashinzwe ibya gisirikari bashimuta  ibyagerwaho, bikaba ari yo mpamvu hagomba kuba kwigisha no kumvikana ku buryo bw’imikorere.

Ingero zirahari nubwo zihindagurika, ariko i Burundi ni ko byari byagenze. Abantu bakoresha ibyabaye ku barundi bikagenda binonosorwa kurushaho. Sinkeka ko mu magambo make nk’aya hari umuganda munini ntanze kuri iki kibazo cy’ingutu kitureba twese, akaba ari yo mpamvu mpamagarira bagenzi banjye bose tujya kubyumva kimwe cyangwa tukanyuranya kudatinya gushyira hamwe ibitekerezo byanyu, kuko ngo  » abagiye inama Imana irabasanga », nkongeraho nti igihe ni iki.

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