Ibihe turimo: Iyi demukarasi ya Baringa none yaroha igihugu mu rwobo?

Ibumoso abo muri PSD, iburyo aba PL bari kumwe na Tito Rutaremera wa FPR, hagati igishushanyo cyerekana ko aya mashyaka ashyigigikye P. Kagame. Ifoto (c) yakozwe ihereye ku yatangajwe n'Igihe
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27/08/2017, Yanditswe na Amiel Nkuliza

Demukarasi ni ijambo rihozwa mu kanwa k’abanyapolitiki bo muri Afurika, iyo bashaka kujijisha amahanga ko iyo demukarasi itangwa na rubanda, ikanashyirwaho na rubanda. Iyi rubanda yagowe, buri gihe ni yo yitabazwa mu bisa no gushyiraho ubutegetsi bwo mu Rwanda, n’ubwo ba nyira bwo, n’ubundi, baba baramaze kubusinda. Aba, baba ari agatsiko k’abantu bafite, bakaniharira byose (oligarchie), abo bita ko babukesha, baririra mu myotsi. Aba ba nyakujya, baba barwana n’ibibazo byabo bya buri munsi: ubukene, inzara, imyigire y’abana babo, kubona udufaranga two kwivuza no guhangana n’ibindi biza, akenshi biba bishingiye ku bitambo, Imana itigeze ibasaba.

Ibiza bidasanzwe, byaguye kuri iyi rubanda, ni uko noneho isigaye ishumurizwa akaga n’ubutegetsi buriho ubu mu Rwanda. Abanyarwanda ntibigeze baribwa n’inyamaswa z’ishyamba cyangwa n’ingona, bagiye kuvoma ibirohwa mu mugezi wa Nyabarongo. Ubutegetsi bwabanjirije ubwa FPR-Inkotanyi, bukoresheje ikigo cyitwaga Electrogaz, bwakoraga uko bushoboye, bukageza kuri rubanda amazi meza, mbere yo kubaka ibindi bikorwa by’amajyambere.

Mu mujyi wa Kigali, ndetse no hirya no hino ku mirenge, iyo abaterankunga batubakaga ibigega byo kubika mo amazi meza, abaturage bashishikarizwaga kwiyubakira za kano, izi zikaba zarahoraga zitemba amazi y’urubogobogo, iyo mu byaro no mu mijyi. Ayo mazi yabonekaga buri gihe: mu ki, mu mpeshyi, no mu itumba. Ikindi ni uko iyo Perezida Habyarimana yasuraga amakomini, abaturage babaga bizeye neza ko azabasigira ikamyo ya rwipakurura, ndetse n’ingobyi y’abarwayi (ambulance). Icyo cyari igikorwa cyiza cy’amajyambere nyakuri, n’imibereho myiza y’abaturage.

Ubutegetsi bwa Kagame bwo, ibyo ntibubikozwa. Icyo bwita ibikorwa by’amajyambere ni ukunyaga imibande n’inkuka by’abaturage, aho bari basanzwe bihingira ibijumba n’indi myaka ibagoboka. Ibindi ubu butegetsi bw’agahotoro bwita ibikorwa by’amajyambere, ni ukubaka amahoteli yo gusambanira mo, imitamenwa mu murwa mukuru wa Kigali, kuwukubura neza, no kuwirukana mo abatishoboye: abazunguzayi, n’abandi batunzwe n’imirimo iciriritse, imirimo y’ubucogocogo ituma abana babo babaho, bakajya no kwiga. Aba bose, aho kugirango Kagame abagire inshuti, cyane cyane ko na we yari umuzunguzayi, abita umyanda (rabish), nyamara akiyibagiza ko na bo bari mu bamutora, iyo yashyizeho ikinamico ry’amatora.

N’ubwo ingoma ngo zisa ntacyo zipfana, burya hari aho zitandukaniye cyane. Ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana bwari bwarimakaje guteza imbere imibereho myiza y’abaturage n’amajyambere y’icyaro. Politiki y’umuganda yari imaze kubaka ibikorwa by’indashyikirwa: imihanda y’imigenderano, amashanyarazi, ndetse n’itumanaho, byari bitangiye gusakara mu cyaro cyose cy’u Rwanda, n’ubwo ubutegetsi bwa Kagame, bukigera mu gihugu, bwabyiyitiriye byose.

Mu rwego rwo kwegereza abaturage inzego za Leta (services décentralisés), Leta ya Habyarimana yari imaze kubaka ibiro bigezweho by’amakomini yose y’igihugu, n’ibigo bijijura, bikanatsura amajyambere (CCDFP:Centres communaux de développement et de formation permanente). Ibi byatumaga abaturage badakora ingendo z’amanywa n’ijoro, bajya kwaka ibya ngombwa mu makomini, nk’uko bimeze ubungubu mu butegetsi bwa FPR-Inkotanyi. Iyo Leta kandi yari imaze gushyira muri ibyo biro n’ibigo amatelefoni n’amashanyarazi, mbere y’uko ubutegetsi bwa FPR bubihindura mo byose ibigo bya gisirikari. Leta ya Habyarimana yari yaranimakaje ibikorwa by’ubuhinzi, abaturage bahinga ibyo bashatse, bijyanye n’imiterere y’ubutaka bwabo.

Buri karere k’u Rwanda kari gafite abo bitaga abajyanama b’ubuhinzi (moniteurs agricoles), aba bakaba barigishaga abaturage uburyo bwo kurwanya isuri, gufumbira imirima yabo, no kubigira ibihingwa bya nyabyo, byera mu karere kabo. Imirima y’ibihingwa bitandukanye ntangarugero, yari imaze kuba icyitegererezo cy’amajyambere y’icyaro, hafi mu gihugu hose. Iyi politiki ishingiye ku mibereho myiza y’abaturage, yabafashaga kwihaza mu biribwa no gusagurira amasoko; bitandukanye n’iby’ubu aho umuturage ahatirwa guhinga ibigori gusa, na byo byakwera ibisahiranda by’ubutegetsi bigahatira umuhinzi kubibagurishaho ku giciro cy’intica ntikize, inzara ikaba ibonye icyuho.

Nta komini itaragiraga abavuzi b’amatungo (vétérinaires); amakomini y’u Rwanda, hafi ya yose, yari afite ibiro by’ubuvuzi bw’ibanze (centres de santé), no kubikwirakwiza mo abaganga babyize (médecins spécialisés), mu gihe mu Rwanda rw’ibisambo by’ubu, abaganga babarirwa ku mitwe y’intoki. Abadafunzwe, barahunze. Abakiri mu gihugu, bahatirwa kuyoboka ishyaka riri ku butegetsi, kugirango bagure inzira n’ubwoko baturuka mo.

Nta komini n’imwe y’u Rwanda itaragiraga ikigo kigisha abari n’abategarugori uburyo bwo kuboneza imbyaro n’imirire y’abana. Uwo muco mwiza, wateguraga ababyeyi b’ejo hazaza, wagiye nka za hene. Abakawigishijwe muri iki gihe, ubu bayobotse inzira z’uburaya, bukorerwa iyo mu mahoteli, aruta ibitaro n’amashuri, ndetse no mu mihanda y’ibihugu abayobozi b’ibisambo bateye, baturuka mo. Abari b’u Rwanda, batagira ingano, ubu bahindutse za kabwera hirya no hino mu gihugu. Ugucururiza imibiri yabo mu bihugu bidukikije nka Uganda n’ahandi, kubera imibereho mibi no kwibura mo icyizere cy’ahazaza, ntacyo bibwiye na mba ubutegetsi bwiyise ubw’ubumwe bw’abanyarwanda. Ngibyo bimwe mu biteye impungenge abenegihugu, bitirirwa ko bashyiraho ubuyobozi, bakanatanga demukarasi mu Rwanda; ya demukarasi ya Baringa, ishobora kujugunya igihugu rwobo.

Amatora ya gashozantambara, mu ruhererekane rwa wa murage w’akaga

Ishyaka FPR-Inkotanyi n’ayahoze ari amashyaka akomeye ya Opozisiyo mu  nzira yo koreka igihugu muri  »Yego Mwidishyi »

Amatora yo muri kanama 2017, amaze kwimika perezida Kagame mu yindi manda y’imyaka irindwi. Ni manda, mu by’ukuri, isigaye mu Rwanda gusa, kuko n’Ubufaransa, igihugu cyateye imbere muri demukarasi, ubu cyakuyeho icyo gihe cy’imyaka irindwi yagenerwaga perezida wa Repubulika. Muri Afrika, igihugu cya Senegali ni icya mbere mu guharura iyo nzira yo kugabanya igihe cya za manda z’umukuru w’igihugu. Perezida w’icyo gihugu, uriho ubu, Macky Sall, yasabye ko, bimuhereyeho, manda y’umukuru w’igihugu yagabanywa, aho kuba imyaka irindwi, ikaba itanu gusa.

Mu Rwanda ho ni ibindi, kuko gukatakata itegekonshinga, mu rwego rwo kwiyongeza za manda z’umukuru w’igihugu, tubimenyereye nk’umuco w’«abayobozi» bacu. Kuva kuri Kayibanda, ukageza kuri Kagame w’ubu, nyiri amaso yerekwa bike, ibindi akirebera. Manda ya gatatu Kagame amaze kwiyongeza, ntiyari iteganyijwe mu Itegekonshinga rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda. Perezida Kagame, wari wariyemereye – ku mugaragaro –  ko nta yindi manda akeneye, yakoze ikinamico ry’amatora, intozo ze zikorezwa ibiseke birimo ubusa, zibitura mu cyiswe inteko ishinga amategeko, ngo zimusaba kongererwa izindi manda; izo manda zikaba zigamije ko yazasazira ku butegetsi, cyangwa akabusigaho agatwe.

Kubusigaho agatwe birashoboka, kuko ni wo murage wacu, umurage w’abayobozi b’u Rwanda, uko bakabaye. Perezida Kagame akize uyu murage mubi, nta gushidikanya ko yazaba ari umurame. «Mugenzi we» Kayibanda, yavuye ku butegetsi yishwe na Habyarimana, «mugenzi we» wundi, ari we Perezida Habyarimana, yaramwiyiciye. Kubera uyu murage w’akaga, nta cyemeza ko na we azava ku butegetsi ari mutaraga. Cyeretse niba we umuvumo w’u Rwanda, utamureba. Twigishijwe ko ntawe ukwiye kwifuriza «mugenzi» we ibyago, nyamara ibihe birasa n’ibirimo guca amarenga.

Ibisa n’ukuri ni uko Kagame na we azava ku butegetsi nk’abamubanjirije, kuko abamurwanya muri iki gihe, ntibakiryama. Barasa n’abahagurukiye rimwe, baba abo mu gihugu n’abo hanze yacyo. Abari imbere mu gihugu, ni ba bandi bitwa ko bafatanyije na we mu cyo bise kubohoza u Rwanda, ubwo baruteraga rutekanye, mu ukwakira 1990. Aba bose, n’ubwo bamubeshya ko bamuri inyuma, nta wahamya ko batamureba ikijisho.

Ibi nta n’umugayo urimo kuko na bo barashaka gutegeka, bakagira ibya mirenge ku ntenyo, bakagura amadege, amahoteli n’ibyubahiro byo ku isi. Byumvikane neza ko u Rwanda batarurwaniriye kugirango barugabire umuntu umwe rukumbi, nk’aho yavukanye imbuto. Aba bose, batavuye mo n’umwe, bashobora kuzabyukira rimwe nka ba baturage bo mu Bufaransa, ubwo bazindukiraga kuri «Chateau de Versailles», mu mwaka w’1789, muri revolisiyo yo kumenesha umwami w’Ubufaransa, Louis XIV, wari wari igize akari aha kajya he. Ibi byabaye kuri uyu munyamurengwe, wiyitaga Louis Soleil, Kagame na we arasa n’ubizi, ukurikije uburyo asigaye areba, nk’igisambo. Habyarimana ajya gupfa, na we yarasukumaga, nk’uko na Kagame asigaye ameze, muri iki gihe.

Ari Kagame ari na Kayumba buri wese aracunganwa n’isaha ngo ikibazo cy’igihango no guhemukirana hagati yabo kibe amateka yeruye ya politiki.

Abamurwanya bo hanze, barimo abafatanyije na we urugamba rwo kubohoza u Rwanda, na bo yarubirukanye mo bose. Kubera inzigo bamufitiye, aba na bo bamaze kubona ko nta kindi bashigaje uretse kumukura ku isi, kugirango bafate ubutegetsi, bakoresheje intambara. Aba mvuga ni abo mu bwoko bw’abatutsi, baba abahoze mu ngabo za FPR cyangwa abasiviri bahoze mu butegetsi buriho ubungubu.

Abahutu na bo, iyo bandagaye iyo ku isi hose, baracyakubita agatoki ku kandi. Barimo abahoze mu buyobozi bwa perezida Habyarimana, bakirota uburyohe bw’ubutegetsi barimo. Bumva, cyangwa bibeshya ko amaherezo y’inzira ari mu nzu. Abenshi muri bo bubatse imitwe ya gisirikari iyo mu mashyamba ya Kongo, abandi barimo gushakisha aho bazikinga mu bihugu by’abaturanyi, kugirango nibashoza intambara, bazabone aho bugama imvura y’amasasu, Kagame azaba arimo kubamishaho.

Abandi bari mu byo bise amashyaka menshi, kuko bakiri muri mama wararaye ko ngo amashyaka ari yo nzira y’ubusamo yo gufata ubutegetsi bwo mu Rwanda. Aba bose ngo barashaka kwirukana Kagame ku butegetsi bushya amaze kwigabira, byaba mu mahoro cyangwa mu miborogo. Yaba ayo mahoro n’ibitandukanye na yo, byombi babyita demukarasi; ya demukarasi yitirirwa rubanda; iyi rubanda yagowe, isigaye itunzwe n’amazi y’ibirohwa yo muri Nyabarongo; indi rubanda ikaba isigaye igaburirwa ingona, zatojwe kuyimiraza.

Ngiyo demukarasi ya Baringa, ya demukarasi ngo yo kubohoza u Rwanda, akenshi ishingiye ku nyungu za bamwe; ya demukarasi ihitana Rubanda n’abayobozi b’u Rwanda, batifuza na rimwe kurekura ubutegetsi, batishwe.

Demukarasi u Rwanda rwijanditse mo muri iyi myaka irindwi iri imbere, ishobora kuba ari ya demukarasi iganisha igihugu mu kaga. Ni demukarasi ica amarenga y’ibyahanuwe n’abareba kure: abasizi, abahanzi, abacurabwenge, n’abakoreramana. Ni demukarasi ishingiye ku myumvire y’intumva, zitigeze zimenya, cyangwa zirengagiza icyo amateka atahwemye kutwigisha. Amateka yacu yamaze kwiyandika, ku buryo kuyahindura, bizatugora: nta muyobozi w’u Rwanda wigeze agira amahirwe yo gusazira ku butegetsi, atishwe. Utarishwe muri abo, yapfuye ahagaze. Nta rupfu rurenze urwo.

 

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